Journal of Geodetic Science

Instructions for Authors

1. About

Journal of Geodetic Science (JGS) is an international journal devoted to the rapid publication of
works of wide significance, originality and relevance in all areas of Geodesy. JGS reflects the full
breadth of research in theoretical and applied Geodesy, represented by diverse sections:
Physical Geodesy, Mathematical Geodesy, Satellite Geodesy, Global Navigation Satellite Systems
(GNSS), Satellite Geodesy and gravimetry, Deformation analysis, Geodetic Networks, Surveying
Engineering, Space and Planetary Geodesy, Geodynamics, numerical algorithms and software
and other related fields to Geodesy

Our central goal is to serve as a broad-spectrum platform for exchanging ideas, and to facilitate
collaboration among researchers from different countries. The journal accommodates a variety of
exposition styles and formats to help scientists with diverse backgrounds interact seamlessly.
2. Criteria for Publication
The primary criteria for judging the acceptability of a manuscript are: its originality, scientific
and interest to a general geodetic audience. See our Editorial policy for more details.
3. Publication Formats
JGS considers submissions of (see Publication formats for further details):
Research Articles
and Rapid Communications*
Reviews and Mini-Reviews
Letters to the Editor

* Rapid Communications are intended to present new information of exceptional novelty and exciting
results of significant interest to the readers. Authors are asked to provide an explanation in the cover
letter why their contribution should be handled via rapid channel.
4. Electronic Submission
All submissions to JGS must be made electronically via the Editool - an online submission and peer
review system (detailed instructions for submission can be found on the Editool website). First-time
users must create an Author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. All
manuscripts receive individual identification codes upon submission that should be used in any
correspondence with regard to the publication process. If you experience difficulties with the
manuscript submission Web site, please contact the Managing Editor.
All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters
pertaining to publication. The corresponding author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process. 5. Electronic Formats Allowed
We accept submission of text, tables and figures as separate files or as a composite file. For your
initial submission, we recommend you upload your entire manuscript, including tables and figures, as
a single PDF file. If you are invited to submit a revised manuscript, please provide us with individual
files: an editable text and publication-quality figures.
Text files can be submitted in the following formats: MS Word - standard DOCUMENT
(.DOC); PDF (not applicable for re-submitted or accepted manuscripts, see below)
Tables should be submitted as MS Word. Note that a straight Excel file is not an acceptable
Graphics files can be submitted in any of the following graphic formats: EPS; BMP; JPG;
TIFF; GIF or PDF. Note that Powerpoint files are not accepted
Authors should clearly indicate location of tables and figures in the text if these elements are given
separately or at the end of the manuscript. If this information is not provided to the editorial office, we
will assume that they should be left at the end of the text.
Any articles that have been prepared in LaTeX will be accepted for review, but only in PDF format.
Post acceptance, text files of the revised manuscript and tables are required for use in the production.
Macintosh users are advised to add the correct three-letter filename suffix.
6. First-Time Submission of Articles
It is important that authors include a cover letter with their manuscript. Please explain why you
consider your manuscript as suitable for publication in JGS, why will your paper inspire the other
members of your field, and how will it drive research forward. The letter should contain all important
details such as:
your full name (submitted by) full title of article and short title full list of authors with affiliations e-mail of the corresponding author contact address, telephone/fax numbers of the corresponding author number of attached files, if there is more than one status: new, reviewed or accepted (with reference ID if reviewed or accepted) area of Geodesy you would like to submit your manuscript in Cover letter should explicitly state that the manuscript (or one with substantially the same content, by any of the authors) has not been previously published in any language anywhere and that it is not under simultaneous consideration or in press by another journal. If related work has been submitted, then we may require a preprint to be made available. Reviewers will be asked to comment on the overlap between the related submissions. Manuscripts that have been previously rejected, or withdrawn after being returned for modification, may be resubmitted if the major criticisms have been addressed. The cover letter must state that the manuscript is a resubmission, and the former manuscript number should be provided. To ensure fair and objective decision-making, authors must declare any associations that pose a conflict of interest in connection with evaluated manuscripts (see Editorial Policy for details).
Authors may suggest up to two referees not to use and in such cases additional justification should be
provided in the cover letter. Authors are encouraged to recommend up to five reviewers who are not
members of their institution(s) and have never been associated with them or their laboratory(ies);
please provide contact information for suggested reviewers. The Editors reserve the right to select
expert reviewers at their discretion.
7. Submission of Revised Articles
When revision of a manuscript is requested, authors are expected to deliver the revised version of the
manuscript as soon as possible. The manuscript should be uploaded directly to the Editool as an
answer to the Editor's decision (and not as a new manuscript). Manuscripts that have been rejected, or
withdrawn after being returned for modification, may be resubmitted if the major criticisms have been
addressed. In such cases, the cover letter must state that the manuscript is a resubmission, and the
former manuscript number should be provided.
Resubmitted manuscript should be accompanied by a letter outlining a point-by-point response to Editor's and reviewers' comments and detailing the changes made to the manuscript. A compare copy of the manuscript should be included if the Editor requested one. If it is the 1st revision authors need to return revised manuscript within 60 days; if it is the 2nd revision authors need to return revised manuscript within 14 days. Additional time for resubmission must be requested in advance; further 14 days may be given to authors for further improvements. If the above mentioned deadlines are not met, the manuscript will be treated as a new submission. Please provide us with an editable text and publication-quality figures. Tables also need to be included within an editable article file or be submitted separately as editable files. Supply any figures
as separate high-resolution, print-ready digital versions. In addition to the editorial remarks, authors
are asked to take care that they have prepared the revised version according to the Journal's style.
Please adopt numbered citation (citation-sequence) style referencing.
8. Preparation of Manuscripts
It is essential that contributors prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions and
specifications presented below.
General rules for writing
The work must demonstrate its novelty, importance to a particular field and its interest to those outside
that discipline. Conclusions must be justified by the study, please make your argumentation complete
and be self-critical as you review your drafts. JGS encourages the submission of both substantial full-
length bodies of work and shorter manuscripts that report novel findings that might be based on a
more limited range of experiments. There are no specific length restrictions for the overall manuscript
or individual sections; however, we urge the authors to present and discuss their findings in a concise
and accessible manner. Use simple and declarative sentences and commonly understood terms, avoid
long sentences and idle words. We recommend that for clarity you use the past tense to narrate
particular events in the past, including the procedures, observations, and data of the study that you are
reporting. Use the present tense for your own general conclusions, the conclusions of previous
researchers, and generally accepted facts. Thus, most of the Abstract, Experimental Procedures, and
Results should be in the past tense, and most of the Introduction and some of the Discussion should be
in the present tense. Editors may make suggestions for how to improve clarity and readability, as well
as to strengthen the argument.
Organization of the Manuscript
Articles should be organized into the following sections:
Title page with: Title (and running title); Author's name(s); Affiliation(s); Address(es)
Experimental Procedures
Acknowledgments (if applicable)
Figure Legends and Table Captions
Supplemental data (if applicable)
Each of these elements is detailed below. We draw particular attention of authors to the importance of
carefully preparing the title, keywords and abstract as these elements are indicators of the manuscript
content in bibliographic databases and search engines.
We suggest the title should be informative, specific to the project, yet concise (75 characters or less).
Please bear in mind that a title that is comprehensible to a broad scientific audience and readers
outside your field will convey to wide readership of your article. Avoid specialist abbreviations and
non-standard acronyms. Titles should not be presented in title case (words should not be capitalized).
Please also provide a brief "running title" of not more than 50 characters.
Authors, Affiliations, Addresses
Provide the first names (or initials - if used), middle names (or initials - if used), surnames for all
authors. Affiliations should include:
University or organization
Postal code
State/province (if applicable)
One of the authors should be designated as the corresponding author to whom inquiries regarding
the paper should be directed. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to ensure that the author list
and the summary of the author contributions to the study are accurate and complete. Place an asterisk
after the name of the corresponding author and provide us with a valid e-mail address. Please note that
a change in authorship (order of listing, addition or deletion of a name, or corresponding author
designation) after submission of the manuscript will be implemented only after receipt of signed
statements of agreement from all parties involved. Footnote can be used to present additional
information (for example: permanent, adequate, present postal addresses). If the article has been
submitted on behalf of a consortium, all consortium members and affiliations should be listed after the

Abstract and Image accompanying abstract

The abstract should be succinct; it should not exceed 200 words. The abstract should give the idea of
the basic content of the paper and is usually conceptually divided into: Background, Methodology,
Principal Findings/Results, and Conclusions/Significance. Mention the techniques used without going
into methodological detail and summarize briefly the most important items of the paper. Please do not
include any citations or references to tables or figures, and avoid specialist abbreviations and symbols.
Because the abstract will be published separately by abstracting services, it must be complete and
understandable without reference to the text.
Authors may provide a striking image to accompany their article, if one is available. If the image (photo, graph, scheme) is judged by the editors to be suitable for publication, it may be featured on the web to highlight the paper online. It is preferable, but not essential, that these should be related strictly to the subject reported in the manuscript. The image could originate from the experimental findings reported in the manuscript but does not have to constitute a part of the original work and need not be reprinted in the article. Images must be original and should be submitted as separate files. Keywords
List keywords for the work presented (maximum of 10), separated by commas.
The introduction should put the focus of the manuscript into a broader context and should supply
sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results without
referring to previous publications on the topic. As you compose the introduction, think of readers who
are not experts in this field. Include a brief review of the key literature - use only those references
required to provide the most salient background rather than an exhaustive review of the topic.
Relevant controversies or disagreements in the field should be mentioned so that a non-expert reader
can delve into these issues further. The introduction should conclude with a brief statement of the
rationale for the study, the hypothesis that was addressed or the overall purpose of the experiments
reported and should provide a comment about whether that aim was achieved.
Experimental Procedures
This section should include sufficient technical information to enable the experiments to be
reproduced. Protocols for new methods or significant modifications to existing methods should be
included, while previously published or well-established protocols should only be referenced.
Describe new methods completely and give sources of unusual chemicals, equipment, strains etc.
Studies presented should comply with our recommendations for distribution of materials and data (see
below). In theoretical papers comprising the computational analyses, technical details (methods,
models applied or newly developed) should be provided to enable the readers to reproduce the
This section should provide details of all of the experiments that are required to support the
conclusions of the paper. Reserve extensive interpretation of the results for the Discussion section.
Details of experiments that are peripheral to the main thrust of the article and that detract from the
focus of the article should not be included. Present the results as concisely as possible in text, table(s),
or figure(s) (see below). Avoid extensive use of graphs to present data that might be more concisely
presented in the text or tables. Graphs illustrating methods commonly used need not be shown except
in unusual circumstances. Number figures and tables in the order in which they are cited in the text,
and be sure to cite all figures and tables. Styles and fonts should match those in the main body of the
article. Large datasets, including raw data, should be submitted as supporting files. The section may be
divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading.
The Discussion should provide an interpretation of the results in relation to previously published work
and to the experimental system used. It should not contain extensive repetition of the Results or
reiteration of the Introduction. This section should spell out the major conclusions of the work along
with some explanation or speculation on the significance of these conclusions. The discussion should
be concise and tightly argued. The results and discussion sections may be combined into one section
and can include additional subheadings.
Acknowledgments: This section should describe sources of funding that have supported the work.
Please also describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in study design; collection, analysis, and
interpretation of data; writing of the paper; and decision to submit it for publication. Recognition of
personal assistance should be given as a separate paragraph: people who contributed to the work, but
do not fit the criteria for authors should be listed along with their contributions. You must ensure that
anyone named in the acknowledgments agrees to being so named.
References: Because all references will be linked electronically to the papers they cite, proper
formatting of the references is crucial (see Reference Guide for more details). A complete reference
should give the reader enough information to find the relevant article. Please pay particular attention to
spelling, capitalization and punctuation.

References to unpublished or submitted work, unpublished conference presentations, personal
communications, patent applications and patents pending, computer software, databases, and websites
should be referred to as such only in the body of the text. These should be kept to the minimum.
The examples are as follows:
(J. Smith, unpublished data)
(J. Smith and P. Brown, submitted for publication)
(J. Smith, personal communication)
(J. Smith and P. Brown, presented at the 4th Symposium on Food Microbiology, Overton, IL, 13 - 15
June 1989)
(J. C. Odell, April 1970, Process for batch culturing, U.S. patent 484,363,770)
(J. Smith, 20 June 1999, Australian Patent Office)
… from the GenBank database (
. using ABC software (version 1; Division of Geodesy, State University, http://www.stu.micro)
Published or accepted ('in press') manuscripts, books and book chapters, theses should be
included in the reference list
. References to published meetings abstracts should be kept to the
For all references, list the first six authors; add "et al." if there are additional authors. Standard
abbreviations of journal names according to Thomson Scientific should be used (see: Journal
Please use the following style for the reference list:
Published Papers
Kulig P., Zabel B.A., Dubin G., Allen S.J., Ohyama T., Potempa J., et al., Staphylococcus aureus-
derived staphopain B, a potent cysteine protease activator of plasma chemerin, J. Immunol., 2007,
178, 3713-3720
Kulig P., Zabel B.A., Dubin G., Allen S.J., Ohyama T., Potempa J., et al., Stafopaina B
Staphylococcus aureus, aktywator chemeryny osoczowej, J. Immunol., 2007, 178, 3713-3720, (in
Accepted Papers
Kulig P., Zabel B.A., Dubin G., Allen S.J., Ohyama T., Potempa J., et al., Staphylococcus aureus-
derived staphopain B, a potent cysteine protease activator of plasma chemerin, J. Immunol., (in press),
DOI: 12.3412/01
Kulig P., Zabel B.A., Dubin G., Allen S.J., Ohyama T., Potempa J., et al., Stafopaina B
Staphylococcus aureus, aktywator chemeryny osoczowej, J. Immunol., (in press, in Polish), DOI:
Electronic Journal Articles
Dionne M.S., Schneider D.S., Screening the immune system, Genome Biol., 2002,
Books and book chapters
Sambrook J., Russell D.W., 2001, Molecular cloning - a laboratory manual, 3rd ed., Cold Spring
Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor,
Sambrook J., 2001, Cloning and sequencing, In: Sambrook J., Russell D.W. (Eds.), Molecular cloning
- a laboratory manual, 3rd ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor
Agutter A.J., 1995, Analysis of sigma factors in S. aureus, PhD thesis, Edinburgh University,
Edinburgh, UK,
Agutter A.J., 1995, Analiza czynnikow sigma S. aureus, PhD thesis, Jagiellonian University, Krakow,
Poland, (in Polish)
Conference proceedings
Smith J., Brown P., Reference style guide, 2007, In: M. Scott (Ed.), Proceedings of Biochemical
Society Conference (11-13 July 2007, Warszawa, Poland), Versita Warsaw, 1335-1791
References are listed in alphabetical order. Before submitting your article, please make sure you have
carefully checked the manuscript for any relevant references you may have missed.

Figures and Figure Legends

Authors may use schemes, diagrams, line graphs and bar charts to illustrate their findings. Figures
included with online submissions should be suitable for onscreen viewing and desktop printing. High
resolution images should be provided on request or on manuscript acceptance. The figures and their
lettering should be clear and easy to read i.e. no labels should be too large or too small. We remind
authors that it is not acceptable scientific conduct to modify any separate element within an image
(adjustments of the entire image in brightness, contrast and color balance are justified only if they do
not misrepresent the original, observed data). Composite figures composed of grouped images such as
insets from different fields or separate parts of gels must be explained in the figure legend and
differentiated by use of dividing lines or other means to make composites unambiguous. Figures
should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and referred to in the text by number. Figure
legends should follow the main text, each on a separate page. Each figure legend should have a
concise title and should provide enough information so that the figure is understandable without
frequent reference to the text. It should inform the reader of key aspects of the figure, but the figure
should also be discussed in the text. The legend should be succinct, while still explaining all symbols
and abbreviations. Avoid lengthy descriptions of methods.

Tables and Table Captions

Tables must include enough information to warrant table format and should be used only where
information cannot be presented in the text. Tables should be typed as text, using either 'tabs' or a table
editor for layout, please do not use graphics software to create tables. Tables occupying more than one
printed page should be avoided, if possible; larger tables can be published as appendix. Do not use
picture elements, text boxes, tabs, or returns in tables. Tables that contain artwork, chemical structures,
or shading must be submitted as illustrations. Tables should be numbered consecutively using Arabic
numerals and referred to in the text by number. Table legends should follow the main text, each on a
separate page. Each table should have an explanatory caption which should be as concise as possible.
The headings should be sufficiently clear so that the meaning of the data is understandable without
reference to the text. Footnotes can be used to explain abbreviations but should not include detailed
descriptions of the experiment. Citations should be indicated using the same style as outlined above.

In-line equations should be typed as text. The use of graphics programs and 'equation
editors' should be avoided. All the variables of the formulas should be italic and matrices are capital
and bolded and vector non-capital but bolded. The texts of the formulas are normal.
Abbreviations: Please keep abbreviations to a minimum and it is recommended to consider a list for
them before the introduction of paper.
Supplemental Material
We encourage authors to submit essential supplementary files that additionally support the authors'
conclusions along with their manuscripts (the principal conclusions should be fully supported without
referral to the supplemental material). Supplemental material will always remain associated with its
article and is not subject to any modifications after publication. The decision to publish the material
with the article if it is accepted will be made by the Editor. Supporting files of no more than 10 MB in
may be submitted in a variety of formats, but should be publication-ready, as these files will be
published exactly as supplied. Material must be restricted to large or complex data sets or results that
cannot be readily displayed because of space or technical limitations. Material that has been published
previously is not acceptable for posting as supplemental material.
Supporting files should fall into one of the following categories:
Additional Figure or Table
Multimedia - Audio/Video/Animations (AVI, MPEG, WAV, Quicktime, animated GIF or Flash)
If the software required for users to view/use the supplemental material is not embedded in the file,
you are urged to use shareware or generally available/easily accessible programs. To prevent any
misunderstandings we request that authors submit a text file (instruction.txt) containing a brief
instruction on how to use the files supplied. All supporting information should be referred to in the
manuscript, with titles (and, if desired, legends) for all files listed under the heading 'Supporting
9. Nomenclature
We strongly recommend the use of correct and established nomenclature wherever possible. Always
report numerical data (length, weight, and volume) in the appropriate SI units.
10. Formatting and Typesetting
All pages must be numbered consecutively. The whole text (including legends, footnotes, and
references) should be formatted double-spaced with no hyphenation and automatic word-wrap (no
hard returns within paragraphs). Please type your text consistently, e.g. take care to distinguish
between '1' (one), 'I' (capital I) and 'l' (lower-case L) and '0' (zero) and 'O' (capital O), etc. Manuscript
pages should have line numbers. The font size should be no smaller than 12 points.
Footnotes and endnotes should be avoided. Allowable footnotes/endnotes may include: the designation
of the corresponding author of the paper, the current address of an author (if different from that shown
in the affiliation), abbreviations and acronyms. Do not create symbols as graphics or use special fonts
that are external to your word processing program; use the "insert symbol" function. Indicate
paragraph lead-ins in bold type and italicize any words that should appear in italics. Decimal multiples
or submultiples of units are indicated by the use of prefixes Most units are spaced off from the
number, the only exceptions are: 1%, 1‰, 1°C, 1°, 1', 1".

11. Distribution of materials and data

The publication of an article in JGS is subject to the understanding that authors make all data and
associated protocols available to readers on request. The Experimental Procedures section should
include details of how materials and information may be obtained. In cases of dispute, authors may be
required to make primary data available to the Editor. Authors are expected to use established public
repositories wherever possible. All newly reported data including datasets, images, and information
should be deposited in public resources and must be accessible without restriction from the date of
publication. Please provide the relevant entry name, accession number or identification code in the
Experimental Procedures section. Please note that an author's web site is not acceptable for providing
this type of information.
In the case of new software, source code should ideally be made available, for example as supporting information with the rest of the paper, or by deposition at a publicly accessible resource such as For a new algorithm a detailed description should be published in the paper. In cases where the software/algorithm is not central to the paper, we nevertheless encourage authors to make all relevant materials freely available. Software can be provided under license where necessary, but any restrictions on the availability or on the use of materials might be judged to diminish the significance of a paper, and therefore influence the decision about whether a paper should be published subject to those conditions. 12. Transfer of Copyright Agreement
Once the paper is accepted, authors are assumed to have transferred the copyright of the paper to the
publisher, Versita. A properly completed Transfer of Copyright Agreement, signed by the
Corresponding Author on behalf of all the authors, must be provided for each submitted manuscript as
a condition of publication. A form is sent to the authors upon a new manuscript submission, it can also
be downloaded from the journal’s webpage Manuscripts submitted under multiple authorship are
reviewed on the assumption that all listed authors concur in the submission and that the final version
of the manuscript has been seen and approved by all authors. Transfer of Copyrights Agreement
document should be signed and sent by regular mail to the following address: Versita, PO Box. 8, 00-
951 Warsaw 41 Poland.

13. Outline of the Production Process

Once an article has been accepted for publication, the manuscript files are transferred into our
production system to be language-edited and formatted. Language and technical editors reserve the
privilege of editing manuscripts to conform with the stylistic conventions of the journal. Once the
article has been typeset, PDF proofs are generated so that authors can approve all editing and layout.

Electronic Proofs

Proofreading should be carried out once a final draft has been produced. Since the proofreading stage
is the last opportunity to correct the article to be published, the authors are requested to make every
effort to check for errors in their proofs before the paper is posted online. Please note that only
essential changes can be made at this stage and extensive corrections, additions, or deletions will not
be allowed. Limit changes to correction of spelling errors, incorrect data, and grammatical errors and
updated information for references to articles that have been submitted or are in press. If URLs have
been provided in the article, recheck the sites to ensure that the addresses are still accurate and the
material that you expect the reader to find is indeed there. Important new information that has become
available between acceptance of the manuscript and receipt of the proofs may be inserted proof with
the permission of the editor. Additionally, authors may be asked to address remarks and queries from
the language and/or technical editors. Queries are written only to request necessary information or
clarification of an unclear passage or to draw attention to edits that may have altered the sense. Please
note that language/technical editors do not query at every instance where a change has been made. It is
the author's responsibility to read the entire text, tables, and figure legends, not just items queried.
Major alterations made will always be submitted to the authors for approval.
Corresponding author receives e-mail notification when a downloadable PDF file is available in the Editool and should return the comments within 3 days of receipt. The prompt return of proofs by
authors will expedite the production process. Comments should be submitted via the Editool (or, in
case of any problems, they can be e-mailed to Managing editor). Please note that they should not be
faxed, nor mailed or sent by a courier service to the Editorial Office.

Online publication

JGS is covered by Springer's OnlineFirst service. Online First articles are complete full-text articles
published online in advance of their publication in a fully assembled online and printed issue. The
manuscripts are considered to be ready for publication online when the final proofreading has been
performed by authors, and all concerns have been resolved. Online publication will normally
be within 2 weeks of receipt of corrected proofs by the production office. Authors should note
that OnlineFirst articles are complete and final and thus no changes can be made after online
publication. The nature of OnlineFirsty articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue
or page numbers, so OnlineFirst articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are
therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and
tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication the DOI remains valid and can
continued to be used to cite and access the article.


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