VEER NARMAD S OUTH GUJ ARAT UNIVE RSIT Y, S URAT First Year M. Sc. Biotechnology BIOPHYSICS
1.1 Interference: Interference, coherence and coherent sources, interference by division of wavefront, interference by division of amplitude 1.2 Diffraction: Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction, fraunhoffer diffraction due to
(i) single slit (ii) double slit (iii) circular aperture, resolving power or optical instruments, dispersive power 1.3 Polarization: Production of polarized light, Malus law, analysis of polarized light,
2.1 Lasers: Introduction, spontaneous and stimulated emission, main components of
Laser, The ruby laser, He-Ne laser, Einstein's coefficients and optical amplification.
2.2 Fiber optics: Introduction, total internal reflection, step and graded index fibers, fiber
2.3 Nature of light and matter: Particle nature of radiation - The photoelectric effect,
Compton effect, X-ray diffraction - Bragg's law
2.4 The origin of quantum theory – Planck's hypothesis, the wave function, basic
3.1 Spectroscopy : Infrared spectroscopy, and its applications, Raman spectroscopy and
its applications, Ultraviolet and Visible spectroscopy.
3.2 Biomechanics : Biostatics, biophysics of bones, strength of bones, biodynamics. 3.3 Biophysics and Fluid flow : Steady laminar flow, Poiseulle's formula, energetics of
fluid flow, turbulence, hemodynamics, fluid flow in plants.
3.4 Biophysics and gas transport : The ideal gas, convective transport of gases, diffusion
of gases: Fick's laws, physiology of respiration.
3.5 Physics of audition : Transverse and longitudinal waves, physiological
characteristics of sound, human ear, phase sensitivity and determination of direction, Doppler effect.
3.6 Physics of vision : Wave nature of light, geometrical optics, refractive power, retina
and photoreceptors, photoreceptors and fiber optics, resolving power of eye, polarization and vision
VEER NARMAD S OUTH GUJ ARAT UNIVE RSIT Y, S URAT First Year M. Sc. Biotechnology BIOCHEMISTRY – I 1.1. Chemical Bonding 1.1.1 Lonic bond – lattice energy – Born Haber cycle – 1.1.2
Covalent - bond energy changes during bond - formation
Potential energy diagram of H2 & He2
Hydrogen bond and its effect on properties of compounds
Hybridization sp3, sp2, sp - VSEPR principle as applied to NH3, H2O, molecules – molecular orbital theory – LCAO method - structure of diatomic molecules N2, O2, F2.
1.2. Wemer's theory of complex salt 1.2.1 Primary and secondary valencies – Tetrahedral, Ocathedral, Square planar complexes 1.2.2 Naturally occurring chelates 1.2.3 Isomerism in Complexes 1.3 Oxidation Reduction – 1.3.1 Oxidising agents like Kmno4, K2Cr2O7, I2, 1.3.2 Reducing agents - oxalate - thirosulphate - Arsenite. 1.3.3 Applications of redox Tirations – lodometry and lodimetry - (i) Estimation
of Vitamin- C. (ii) Reducing and non – reducing sugars.
2.1 Thermodynamics 2.1.1 Zeroth, First law and second law 2.1.2 Enthalpy - Entropy 2.1.3 Hess law - Heat of reaction - Heat of combustion – 2.1.4 Entropy as criteria for spontaneity – Gibbs free energy - As criteria of 2.2. Chemical kinetics – 2.2.1 2.3. Theories of acid - base 2.3.1 lonisation constant of acid & base 2.3.2 Ionic product of water 2.3.3 PH scale 2.3.4 Buffer solutions – buffer capacity Handerson equation - Preparation of buffer solutions – 2.3.5 Acid base Indicators & its theory. 3.1. Colloids – 3.1.1
Preparation of colloids and their purification
Types of colloids - multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids
3.1.3 Brownian movement 3.1.4 Determination of molecular weight by ultracentrifuge and Donan equilibrium
3.2. Surface chemistry – 3.2.1
Adsorption isotherms. (Freundlich & Langnuir –
Homogeneous, Heterogeneous & enzyme catalysis
3.2.5 Inhibitors and Poisoning of catalyst.
3.3 Radioactivity – 3.3.1
Detection and measurement of radio activity
4.1.1. IUPAC Nomenclature of organic compounds 4.1.2
Properties of Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketone, amines, phenols,esters, ethers,
Preparation and synthetics uses of Acetoacetic ester, maloric ester
4.2. Homolytic & Heterolytic fission of bond - Inductive, mesomeric effect -
Resonance - Tantomerism - Hyper conjugation - Electrophilic and nudeophisic substitution
4.3. Stereochemistry - Diastereoisomers – Enarrtiomers - Chirality - absolute
configuration - R and S - E and Z – Stereochemistry of biphenyl & spiro compounds - Resolution – Asymmetric synthesis – conformational analysis in Cyclonexane & its. derivatives.
5.1. Carbohydrates - Their classification-structure of glucose,(Bimolecular) Fructose
and maltose - Inversion of sugars-Mutarotaion - Rina structure Of glucose & fructose - starch and cellulose (No structures) Vitamin C.
5.2. Proteins and amino acids - Hydrolysis of proteins - methods of synthesis of a -
amino acids (3 methods) – synthesis of polypeptide (3 methods) structure of proteins. - Tests for proteins - Protein bormonal thyroxin.
5.3. Chemistry of Hemoglobin and chlorophyII- Role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis
6.1. Polymers - classification according to effect of heat, structure and repeat unit -
Molecular weight of polymers, Number average and weight, average molecular weight - Determination of molecular weight (only two methods) - Stereo specific polymers - Zeigter - Natta catalyst, Biodegradability of polymers
6.2. Important polymers & their applications - polyethylene, Polypropylene, PVC,
Polystyrene, Nylon, Polyester, Synthetic rubber, Teflon, Polyethylene terephthalate.
6.3. Chemotherapentic agents – sulphonamides - Antibiotics – Antimalarial - Anti TB
drugs – Polypeptide antibiotics - Anti- inflammatory drugs.
VEER NARMAD S OUTH GUJ ARAT UNIVE RSIT Y, S URAT First Year M. Sc. Biotechnology BOTANY – I
1.1 Morphology and Systematics of plants – I
Significance, Binomial system of Classification, Effective and valid publication, Author citation, type concept, Types of names.
1.2 Morphological aspects of root, stem and leaf
1.2.1 Root – Types of roots, Modifications of root. Special examples such as
runner and stolons (rhizome & underground parts), Pneumatophores in Avicennia and corolloid roots in Cycas. Differentiation of root, Regions of root growth and functions of root.
1.2.2 Shoot/Stem forms of stem, modifications of stem, branching patterns, specialized stem – phylloclade, cladode and phyllode, functions of stem. 1.2.3 Leaf – Types of leaf, shape, margin, apex, base and petiole phyllotaxy and
venation. Specialized leaf like Leaf Mosaic, Heterophylly.
Morphology of Plants – II
2.1 Bud – Types and modifications 2.2 Flower Types, parts accessory and essential floral parts such as bracts,
bracteoles, thalamus, pedicel, calyx, corolla. Androecium and gynoecium, Flower as modified shoot. Floral diagram and floral formula, aestivation.
2.3 Flower as a reproductive element. Typical flower – Passiflora, Datura, Habiscus rosa – sinensis. 2.4 Inflorescence types, special inflorescence like Cyathium, Thyrsus, Verticillaster and Hypanthodium.
Morphology Plants – III
1.1 Ovule – Types, arrangement of ovules (placentation), functions. 1.2 Fruit – Types, edible parts of some common Indian fruits, specialized fruit
1.3 Pollination – Types of pollination agents, mode of pollination, fertilization. 1.4 Seed – Types germination pattern hypogeal and epigeal germination. Study of
common seed parts and functions e.g. Abrus, Coconut, pomegranate, Pithecellobium, Beans and Mango.
1.5 Functions, dehiscence and dispersal of seeds mode of dispersal, seed dormancy and
Biology and systematics of lower plants (non vascular plants)
4.1 Algae 4.1.1 General characters of algae including cell structure and thellus. 4.1.2 Classification as per G. M. Smith up to class level With respect to pigment- -ation and reserved food materials. 4.1.3 Life cycle (general), morphology and reproduction in : 184.108.40.206 Cyanophyta - Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Anabaena 220.127.116.11 Chlorophyta – Volvox and Spirogyra
18.104.22.168 Bacillariophyta – Diatoms 22.214.171.124 Phyeophyta – Sargassum, Ectocarpus 126.96.36.199 Rhodophyta – Batrachospermum and polysiphonia 4.1.4 Economic importance of Algae.
4.2 Fungi 4.2.1 General characters including cell structure 4.2.2 Classification of Fungi upto class level as per G. M. Smith.
4.2.3 Life history (general), morphology and reproduction in :
188.8.131.52 Phycomycetes – Rhizopus and mucor 184.108.40.206 Ascomycetes – Yeat and Aspergillus 220.127.116.11 Basidiomycetes – Agricus 18.104.22.168 Deuteromycetes – Fusarium 4.2.4 Economic importance of Fungi. 4.2.5 Lichens – Classification, general characters & economic.
4.3.1 General characters of Bryophytes. 4.3.2 Classification of Bryophytes up to class level. 4.3.3 Life cycle (general), morphology and reproduction in : 22.214.171.124 Hepaticopsida – Riccia and Marchantia 126.96.36.199 Anthoceratopsida – Anthoceros 188.8.131.52 Brypsida – Funaria 4.3.4 Economic importance of Bryophytes.
Biology and systematics of higher plants (vascular and seed plants) 5.1 Pterodiphytes 5.1.1 General characters of pteridophytes (Heterospory, Apogamy & Apospory). 5.1.2 Classification of pteridophytes up to class level. 5.1.3 Life cycle (general), morphology and reproduction in : 184.108.40.206 Nephrolepis, Selaginella, Equisetum, Marsilea. 5.1.4 Stele – types in pterodophytes. 5.2 Gymnosperms 5.2.1 General characters of gymnosperms. 5.2.2 Classification up to level. 5.2.3 Life cycle (general), morphology and reproduction in : 220.127.116.11 Cycas and Pinus 5.3 Angiosperms
5.3.1 General characters of Angiosperms including Dicot & Monocot (Difference
5.3.2 Study of following angiosperms families as per Bentham and Hooker’s
system of classification. Malvaceae, cucurbitaceae, Ceasalpiniaceae or Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Liliaceae
5.3.3 Know how of Botanical Institution BSI (Kolkatta) & NBRI (Lakhnow),
botanical gardens NBI Kolkatta, Waghai and Ghandhinagar.
5.3.4 Study of important medical plants : 18.104.22.168 Azadirachta indica (Neem) 22.214.171.124 Adhatoda vesica (Ardusi) 126.96.36.199 Ocimum Spp. (Tulsi) 188.8.131.52 Aloe vera (Kuwarpathu) 184.108.40.206 Commiphora wightii (Guggal) 220.127.116.11 Rauwolfia Serpentina Sarpaghandha 18.104.22.168 Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) 22.214.171.124 Papaver somniferum 126.96.36.199 Tinospora
188.8.131.52 Catharanthus Roseus (Barmasi) 184.108.40.206 Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) 220.127.116.11 Asparagus racemosus subsp. javanicus (Shatavari)
Basics of plant anatomy and plant pathology
6.1 Plant tissue – types: simple, complex, mechanical and structural tissues, Function. 6.2 Cambium – Types, location and function. 6.3 Vascular tissues – types of vascular bundles. 6.4 Plant pathology – Importance of pathology. Reputed agricultural institutes like IARI, ICRISAT and NPPRI. 6.5 Brief study of following plant diseases with respect to symptoms, causal organism
6.5.1 Mycoplasma – Little leaf of Brinjal. 6.5.2 Bacteria – Citrus cancer. 6.5.3 Fungus – Red Rot of Sugarcane. 6.5.4 Grain smut and Head smut of jowar 6.5.5 Leaf wart of Papaya
VEER NARMAD S OUTH GUJ ARAT UNIVE RSIT Y, S URAT First Year M. Sc. Biotechnology ZOOLOGY – I
Significance of Animal classification. History and Development of classification, Principles of classification, International rules for Zoological nomenclature
Classification and characters of non- chordates
2.2 Porifera 2.3 Coelenterata 2.4 Platyhelminthis 2.5 Nemathelmenthis 2.6 Annelida 2.7 Arthropoda 2.8 Mollusca 2.9 Echinodermata
Classification and characters of Chordates 3.1 Cyclostomata 3.2 Osteichthyes 3.3 Amphibia 3.4 Reptilia 3.5 Aves 3.6 Mammals
Comparative Anatomy of Digestive and reproductive systems of amphibian, reptiles, avia and mammalia.
Comparative Hemopoietic systems of amphibian,reptile, avia and mammalian. Including structure and function of blood.
6.1 Wild animals (Terrestrial and aquatic) 6.2 Pet animals (Aquaculture, Pisciculture, Apiculture, Sericulture, Poultry and
6.3 Use of animal models in bio- medical research Bioethics, merits and demerits
VEER NARMAD S OUTH GUJ ARAT UNIVE RSIT Y, S URAT First Year M. Sc. Biotechnology MATHEMATICS AND BIOSTATISTICS Section – I – Mathematics Surds and Quadratic Equations. 1.1 Definition and examples of surds. 1.2 Monomial and binomial surds. 1.3 Some theorems on surds. 1.4 Simplification of surds. 1.5 Definition and examples of linear equation. 1.6 Method of solution of simultaneous linear equations. 1.7 Definition and examples of quadratic equation. 1.8 Method of solution of quadratic equations. Set Theory 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Representation 2.3 Operations and its properties 2.4 Cartesian product Functions 3.1 Definition 3.2 Types. Domain and Range 3.3 Construction and Functions Elements of Differential Calculus 4.1 Real Numbers and Functions 4.2 Limits and continuity 4.3 Differentiation 4.4 Derivatives of trigonometric function Matrices 5.1 Matrices of Order m x n 5.2 Row and column Transformation 5.3 Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of Matrices 5.4 computation of Determinants 5.5 Concepts of Determinants 5.6 Cramer’s Rule 5.7 applications of Matrices Section – II : Biostatistics 1.1 Introduction to Statistics
1.1.1 History and Applications (scope) & uses of statistics in Bio – Science.
1.2 Sources and Presentation of Data 2.1.1 Methods of obtaining data 2.1.2 Types of data 2.1.3 Methods of presentation of Data – Charts, Graphs, Tables. 2.1.4 Presentation frequency distributions for each of data. 2.1 Measures of central tendency & Location measures of central tendency 2.1.1. Measures of central tendency : Mean, Median, Mode – definitions, uses and applications of these measures to biological data. 2.2 Measures of Location : Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles – Graphical method, Arithmetical method, also Their applications. Measures of Dispersion : 2.3.1 Types of variability : Biological, Real, Experimental. 2.3.2 Measures of Variability : 18.104.22.168 Range 22.214.171.124 Semi quartile range 126.96.36.199 Mean deviation 188.8.131.52 Standard deviation Coefficient of variation application in Bio – Science. Correlation and Regression (Linear only) 3.1 Correlation : Definition & types of correlation, methods to correlation. 
Graphical,  Spearman’s Rank correlation and  Karl person’s method. 3.2 Regression : Definition and interpretation of regression coefficient and
regression line (Without proof) and their applications in Bio-Science.
4.1 Probability : Probability Theory : Definitions of population space, Sample space, Events, Favorable events Mutually Exclusive events, Independent events, Exhaustive events, equally likely events. Mathematical definition of probability, Additive and multiplicative rules of probability. concept of Conditional probability. (Without proof). 4.2 Probability Distribution & Sampling : Binomial distribution, Poisson and Normal distribution. Their properties (without proof) and applications in Bio-Science. 5.1 Sampling : Definition of Population, Representative sample, sampling frame, sampling scheme Different sampling techniques :
5.1 Simple random sampling 5.2 stratifies random sampling 5.3 Systematic sampling 5.4 Cluster sampling 5.5 Two stage sampling 5.6 Double sampling 5.7 Multi sampling 5.8 Multi phone sampling Explain the procedures of all these sampling schemes
and use of Particular scheme according to the need of the study and data.
Statistical Software : SPSS For all the topics covered in the earlier topics. Practical use of this software be taught as practical training.
VEER NARMAD S OUTH GUJ ARAT UNIVE RSIT Y, S URAT First Year M. Sc. Biotechnology COMMUNICATION SKILLS – 103 Reading Skill : 1.1 Reading tactics and strategies 1.2 Reading purpose and meaning 1.3 Reading outcomes, structure of meaning, technique. Writing Skill : 2.1 Guidelines for effective writing 2.2 Writing styles for application with personal resume 2.3 Business letter and memo including requests, complains 2.4 Technical report writing 2.5 Development of Paragraph 2.6 Development of story. Listening Skill : 3.1 Barriers to listening 3.2 Effective listening skills 3.3 Attending telephone - calls 3.4 Note – taking. Speaking and discussion Skill : 4.1 Component of effective talk / presentation 4.2 Effective speaking skills 4.3 Discussion skills Text – Book : A Rama Krishna Rao. Learning English – A Communicative Approach. Orient Longman.
5.1 Astronomy 5.2 Information Technology 5.3 Travel and Transport 5.4 Humour 5.5 Health and Medicine 5.6 Environment 5.7 Inspiration 5.8 Human Interest 5.9 Media
VEER NARMAD S OUTH GUJ ARAT UNIVE RSIT Y, S URAT First Year M. Sc. Biotechnology BIOPHYSICS PRACTICALS Section – I – Mathematics LIST OF EXPERIMENTS :
To determine Young's modulus "Y" of the material of a beam by the method of bending of beam.
To determine the modulus of rigidity ‘η’of the material of a thin rod by static method
To determine the frequency of tuning fork using sonometer.
To determine viscosity of liquid by log decrement method.
To determine Planck's constant "h" by photocell.
To determine resolving power of telescope.
To determine dispersive power of the material of the prism using spectrometer.
To determine the wavelength of light using plane diffraction grating (Normal incidence method)
To determine specific rotation of sugar solution using Laurent's half shade polarimeter
To determine cardinal points of a lens system using pins and plane mirror.
To determine the wavelength of monochromatic light by Newton's rings.
To determine wavelength of light using cylindrical obstacle.
To determine wavelength of light using biprism.
To determine angular magnification of simple and compound microscope.
To determine temperature coefficient of resistance by post office box method.
To determine wavelength of a Laser beam using diffraction.
To plot the characteristic curves of a Geiger Counter and to determine resolving time of the counter.
To simulate interference, diffraction and polarization on PC[D]
VEER NARMAD S OUTH GUJ ARAT UNIVE RSIT Y, S URAT First Year M. Sc. Biotechnology BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICALS
Preparation and standardization of NaOH solution, HCl solution, Na2S2O3 solution, EDTA solution.
Titrimetric Analysis : 2.1 Determination of total hardness of water 2.2 Percentage purity of Vitamin C. 2.3 Estimation of glucose. 2.4 Saponification value of an oil sample. 2.5 Determination of H2O2 content in sample. 2.6 Estimation of Cu+2 by iodometric method. 2.7 Determination of Zn+2 by EDTA titration. 2.8 Determination of phenol / aniline by bromination method. 2.9 Determination of total alkalinity of given water sample. 2.10 Determination of culozide using mohr’s method.
Use of pH - meter - Calibration of pH meter - Preparation of buffer of pH 5.0 and 10.0 and measuring its pH - Preparing 0.01 M acetic acid and measuring their pH.
To study the use of colorimeter - verification of Beer's kw with K2Cr2O7 solution
Chemical kinetics. 6.1 Acid hydrolysis of methyl acetate 6.2 Reaction between H2O2 I K1.
Surface Tension measurement : To determine parachor values of organic liquids and determine. Percentage composition of mixture.
Polarimeter : To measure the angle of rotation of Sugar, glucose solution.
To determine Ka of a weak acid using pH - metric titration.
Qualitative Analysis : 1.1 Test for Urea (Binret test) 1.2 Test for earbohydrates. 1.3 Test for proteins.
Paper chromatographic separation of amino acids.
VEER NARMAD S OUTH GUJ ARAT UNIVE RSIT Y, S URAT First Year M. Sc. Biotechnology BOTANY PRACTICALS
To Study Morphology and modification of Root.
To Study Morphology and modification of Stem.
To Study Morphology and modification of Leaves.
To Study essential and accessory floral egs. Datura, Vinca, Hibiscus rosa - Sinensis.
Study of Phyllotaxy and Venation. 5.1 Typical Alternate – Ipomoea fistulosa. 5.2 1/2 two ranked – Typha angustata or any Poaceae member. 5.3 1/3 Three ranked – Durva or Darbh (Cyanodon Dactylon) 5.4 2/5 ranked – China rose (Hibiscus rosa – Sinensis) 5.5 3/8 ranked – Papaya (Carica Papaya) 5.6 Typical opposite – Psidium guajava (Jamphal)5.7 Opposite Decussate – Calotropis procera & Ocimum sanctum. 5.8 Opposite Superposed – Quisqualis indica & Vinea rosea. 5.9 Spiral – Nerium indicum 5.10 Whorled – alstonia Scholaris 5.11 Leaf mosaic – Acalypha indica 5.12 Parallel venation – any monocot member (Banana, Bamboo) 5.13 Reticulate venation – any dicot member (Ficus) 5.14 Unicostate – Ficus religiosa 5.15 Multicostate convergent – wheat of Smilax 5.16 multicostate Divergent – Fan palm or Cucurbita.
Study of Inflorescence : 6.1 Receme or racemose – Caesalpinia pulcherrima 6.2 Compound resame or panicle – DelonixRegia 6.3 Spikelet – Any member of poaceae (Sugarcane) 6.4 Umbel – Any member of Apiaceae (Foeniculum vulgare) 6.5 Spedix – Kewdo (Pandanus) 6.6 Compound umbel – Dhana or Carrot 6.7 Capitate – Bottle brush or any member of mimosaceae 6.8 Capitulum – Sunflower or Marygold 6.9 Dichasial cyme – Ixora or Bougainvillea spectabilis 6.10 Polychasial cyme – Calotropis procera 6.11 Verticillaster – ocimum sanctum
Study of Placentation : (Fresh Specimens and slides) 7.1 Axile – Datura, Habiscus rosa – sinensis or Tomato 7.2 Parietal – Any member of Cruciferae 7.3 Superficial – water lily (Crinum) 7.4 Marginal – any member of Leguminosea 7.5 Basal – Marygold or Sunflower
Study of lower group of plants algae, fungi and bryophytes – examples as mentioned in theory. (Through preserved material and permanent slides).
Study of Pteidophytes and Gymnosperms. 9.1 Examples as mentioned in Theory. 9.2 T. S. of Nephrolepis leaflet passing through sori. 9.3 T. S. of Nephrolepis leaflet without sori. 9.4 T. S. of Fern rachis. 9.5 T. S. of Cycas leaflet. 9.6 T. S. of Pinus needle. 9.7 Preserved laboratory specimens of Cycas & Pinus – Male & Female cone
Study of Angiosperm families with respect to floral diagram, floral formula, general and diagnostic characters. 10.1 Malvaceae – Hibiscus rosa Sinensis 10.2 Cucurbitaceae – Coccina indica or any available species 10.3 Caesalpiniaceae – Caesalpinia pulcherrima 10.4 Apocynaceae – Vinea rosea, Thevetia or Nerium indicum 10.5 Solanaceae – Datura metal or Solanumxanthocarpum 10.6 Rubiaceae – Ixora spp. 10.7 Nyctaginaceae – Bougainvllea spectabilis 10.8 Amaryllidaceae – Crinum or Paneratium 10.9 Liliaceae – Asparagas spp.
Study of Plant tissues : 11.1 Permanent slides of tissues. 11.2 T .S. of Dicot root, stem and leaf. 11.3 T. S. of Monocot root, stem and leaf. 11.4 Root apex and shoot apex. Types of Vascular bundles & stale (Permanent slides)
Study of plant diseases as mentioned in theory.
Morphology and Micro chemical test for stored food material egs. Wheat, rice, maize, chickpea, potato with respect to glucose, starch, lignin & fats.
Morphology and Microscopic structure of the oil yielding tissues, tests for oil and Iodine number egs. Mustard, Groundnut, Soybean, Coconut, Sunflower and Castor.
LIST OF SLIDES
Vascular bundle – conjoint, collateral and closed
VEER NARMAD S OUTH GUJ ARAT UNIVE RSIT Y, S URAT First Year M. Sc. Biotechnology ZOOLOGY PRACTICALS
Study of external characters and classification of representative genera of cash phylum. 1.1 PROTOZOOA : noctiluca, euglena, volvox, leishmania, trichomonas, opalina, monocystis, plasmodium (signet ring), paramecium, vorticella, ceratium. 1.2 PORIFERA: Leucosolania, sycon, euplectella, hylonema, cliona, spongilla, chalina, euspogia. 1.3 COELENTATA : porpita, rhizostoma, gorgonoan, praynatula, adamsia, fungia, madrwpora, astrea. 1.4 PLATYHELMINTHES : Liver fluke,tapeworm. 1.5 NEMATHELMINTHES : ascaris, wuchereria, 1.6 ANNELID : earthworm, neris, leeh, sabella, terbella, arnicola. 1.7 MOLLUSCA : pila, chiton, neopilina, halitis, patella, aplysia or doris, dentalium, mytilus, pectin, teredo, solen, sepia, loligo, octopus. 1.8 ARTHOPODA : trilobite, limulus, aranea, ticks, apus, daphnia, Cyclops, lepus, saculina, aquilla, crab, julus, centipede, scolopendra, lepisma, cockroach, locust, mantis, stick insects, forficulla, dragon fly, belostoma, butterfly, moth, honey bees. 1.9 ECHINODERMATA : feather star, holothurians, echinus, and dollar, astro pectin, brittle star, sea urchin, asteria. 1.10 CHORDATA : Amphixus, lamprey, hagfish, shark, labeo, salamander, frog, tortoise, calottes, any snake, pigeon, rat.
Dissection of earthworm (digestive, nervous, reproductive) Mounting of spermatheca, blood glands, nephridia.
Dissection of Rat (digestive, reproductive) Fish - Bony fish - N. S.
To study metachromatia from rat bone marrow.
Estimation of hemoglobin content of blood.
Differential staining and counting of RBC & WBC.
To study life cycle of honey bees, silk moth.
INTRODUCTIE Deze derde, herziene editie van ‘Vaccination Is Not Immunization’ (de eerste vertaling voor Nederland en België) beschrijft de laatste ontwikkelingen in het afgelopen jaar. Het aantal vaccinaties dat aan Amerikaanse kinderen wordt gegeven volgt het patroon van de exponentiële groei van de In 1974 was de wereldbevolking 4 miljard, het aantal vaccinaties voor kinderen