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Food Security of Northern Indigenous Peoples
in a Time of Uncertainty

C.D. James Pacii, C.Dicksonii, S.Nickelsiii, L.Chaniv, and C.Furgalv This special position paper for the Northern change. The availability and predictability of Research Forum (NRF) raises issues related to the range of traditionally harvested and the security of traditional/country food; that is consumed foods, as well as the quality and the continued and predictable availability and Changes in climate are causing other changes, environments through Indigenous cultural creating hazards on the land is discussed practices. Traditional/country food is the elsewhere (Newton et al. in press). Climate general category of foods describing all of the change is a real and significant threat to the plant and animal nutrients required for the existence of northern Indigenous Peoples. health and sustenance of northern Indigenous Our discussion places particular emphasis on traditional use of natural resources occurred several implications for food security under within cultural/social and environmental changing climate scenarios for the purposes of contexts. We assume that these contexts are our session on northern security. The NRF has independent and interrelated, focused as they are in our paper on climate change. The vast possibly transcending all issues in the North is array of traditional economies reflected the wide ranging one of concepts security (sic). through our focus on food security will be Security involves all elements of resilience of northern communities. It ranges from notions of military security and the nation state, which simplifications do not include the notion of traditional/country food economies as entirely environmental security, and to the most fixed or unchanging. The relationship between pressing concepts of civil security. Civil Indigenous harvesters and consumers on the Security involves culture, food and freedom of one hand, and a predictable and standard expression; the security afforded by the built supply of goods (natural resources) on the environment and community health; the access other, is a reflection of complex ecological to the needs of modern societies without the systems. The mode of harvesting/gathering as intrusion of aspects of southern society; and traditional rhythms, which included a degree of flexibility, innovation and adaptation. The Of particular importance to the NRF are: the degree of change and adaptation, that is the ability to respond to environmental or human range of behaviors of hunters and consumers, disasters, civil security in a world of media was to a greater or lesser degree set by a range globalization of culture, the meaning of the of environmental factors, including historical national borders in a circumpolar world, patterns of scarcity and abundance, predictable culturally relevant education, adaptation and vulnerability in the context of global change. Our paper begins with a brief introduction of the topic, followed by a summary of a research security? Indigenous Peoples are suffering the project currently underway in northern Canada increased risk of uncertainty caused by climate (Chan and Furgal, A566, 2003), and finally Plenary 4: Security
comments and questions for each of the theme Geographers and climatologists are studying areas identified by the NRF for the session on climate change independent of Indigenous Peoples and the social science. Combined we can map the patterns of past changes and counter assumption, regarding the movements Introduction
of peoples in adaptation to major climactic events. diverse cultures and biological diversity. It is a complex and sensitive region of the world, a occupancy and use, traditional knowledge, region that the Arctic Council has identified as along with the results of various scientific an “indicator” of global processes. What this studies, for greater insight on how peoples term suggests is that the circumpolar north is a were impacted and adapted to change (Berkes region where global processes, such as the 1999, Jolly et al. 2002). Interdisciplinary long-range transport of contaminants (such as approaches are proving to be an effective persistent organic pollutants) or changes in means of understanding climate change and atmospheric gases, and increases or decreases in global temperature regimes, are registered before and more intensely than in other parts Collectively, a full hearing of the knowledge of the world. The physical environment and the peoples of the circumpolar north are experience (traditional and local knowledge) as vulnerable to global forces of change. By well as the analytical power of prediction paying attention to northern environments and (scientific models) must be brought together to northern peoples, the global community will complete understanding of where circumpolar ecosystems are heading --what the implications Climate change is amplified by the close of changing climate mean to both the day to relationship between northern Indigenous peoples and their environments. While impacts northern cultures/ways of living (NTI et al. of change will profoundly effect how people live and organize themselves in the north, perhaps the most important indication of Systematic research of climate change is new. change will be how northern peoples adapt. Research needs to focus on the impacts of change, not only to provide the world an early warning, but too indicate to the people who are individual). As an area of inquiry it is still, causing change: stark necessities they will relative to other intellectual areas, under- resourced and open to new approaches and theory. More climate change questions are Circumpolar Indigenous Peoples have already unresolved then those few we now have a firm lived through periods of dramatic changes, and conclusive scientific understanding of. recorded in geological time. These changes are Questions remain unresolved for both the perhaps imperfectly understood. However, Indigenous cultures have been shaped and progressing, as all areas of inquiry do, and the uncertainty that currently exists is nothing circumpolar world. In the past, anthropology or history was used to document and analyze these cultures for knowledge of the past, with a There is evidence of significant episodic cycles focus on cultural change. The knowledge, of warming and freezing, during and between traditional knowledge, of Indigenous Peoples periods of human occupancy in the north. The is being made available by these peoples in an circumpolar north saw both tropical and frigid periods. In the high arctic there is evidence of environmental and social history, action huge trees. We have records (oral and written) anthropology (as well as a host of post-modern of glaciations. Why then is the current trend of methodological approaches) have increased the global warming alarming so many scientists, array of questions and broadened research to community members, media, and politicians focus on Indigenous Peoples knowledge of (on either side of the debate)? The simple reason is that causes for current climate change predicted future directions for adaptations. Plenary 4: Security
consumption patterns (contingent as they are on fossil fuels) that are increasing the rate of people have had limited capability to let the warming, interfering with natural processes, in rest of the world know what is going on. significant and, while it is debated, predicted Households have a relative ability to adapt to ways. The debate is heated, excuse the pun, impacts. Climate change threatens aspects of because most of the consumers are unaware their traditional cultures and lifestyles. that their behaviour is having detrimental Adaptation is not necessarily supported by impacts on their local, national and global economic access to modern alternatives. The environments. In other words, the side-effect technology trap has changed considerably of how some unaware people are living is changing how global processes behave, the implications of addressing these changes requires that people become aware and cease their consumption patterns. These people (Developed countries, in particular upper their collectivist views, based heavily in a middle class) are affluent, there are poor rights discourse (Aboriginal rights and title), people (Developing countries) who seek to domestically and to the world. Examples from attain the same level of affluence. One can see northern Canada include rejection of the 1969 the serious pressure for an upward spiral of White Paper (Asch 1997, Erasmus et al. in consumption rather than a slowing and reversal press), development of a pipeline down the of many of the causes of global warming. Climate change, as it has gained international contamination of traditional/country foods (Jensen et al. 1997, Watt-Cloutier 2003). The warming, precipitated by increased emissions creation of Nunavut parallels in some ways the of greenhouse gases, namely carbon dioxide political organization of the Sami; both are (CO2), resulting from industrial development. demonstrating institutional responses to state During the period of intensive industrial governments. The Sami Parliament and Sami development in the western world, beginning University are two examples of innovative in 1850 to a marked increase in growth and institution building. Similarly, the inclusion of widespread use of automobiles and other fossil Indigenous Peoples organizations, to the Arctic Anthropogenic influences have outstripped Council has grown out of the Council’s natural forces in causing global warming. The objective of protecting the arctic environment, indicators of global warming, for example the an environment that includes a rich plurality. circumpolar region, is a sparsely inhabited The demonstration by northern Indigenous Peoples of local, regional, national, and biodiversity, cultures tied for generations to the land, which has been marginal to development, concerns has occurred within, and triggered, except as a source for natural resources or sink larger social movements for the recognition minority). The audience for these arguments The impacts and adaptation to climate change has been both national governments (states) and the international community of states producers is very much an unknown. There are a number of stressors that have marginalized and are jeopardizing northern food production systems. The frequency of periods of crisis in Summary of the Canadian
food supply due to temporal fluctuations in Research Project
food resources are expected to become more often, longer and more intense. The reasons for What does food security and climate change share in common? At the grandest level of scientists’ modeling scenarios suggest; as well analysis both are interdependent. What we as what elders say is foretold in oral history. It mean by this is that as the climate changes so is reasonable to suggest that climate change to will food security. If it warms or cools there “will increases temporal fluctuations in species will be impacts on the relative abundance and scarcity of some foodstuffs. Individual food items, such as cranberries, and whole food structure” (Dickson 2003:3). The results of systems (diet in a household, community or climate change may be most acutely felt in region) will respond differently to changes. Plenary 4: Security
Whether we are discussing individual foods or traditional/country food systems. The relative whole systems, impacts from climate change health of Indigenous cultures continues to be a on food security may include the introduction reflection of the relative health of their lands. of new foods, etc. New foods can be invasive species moving into a region, such is the case manifestations of what the land has to offer with the northward moving tree line into what and what is predicted to be available in the was tundra, the movement of deer north of 60º, future. The degree of flexibility and adaptation and so on, or the introduction of store bought within traditional food systems depends on the land and the people, on the types of changes household within a society, adapts to changes will have impacts on the overall system. There overtime rifles replaced spears, just as are global implications for the kinds of food transformation has held a host of ecological Northern traditional food systems are local. In contrast to traditional food systems, modern food systems tend to be based on large-scale significant feature of traditional food systems consumption. There are small-scale or local consumption of traditional/country foods is organic systems, but these do not form the bulk relatively small in scale. Traditional food of producers within commercially available systems continue to rely on primarily local foods. Agricultural practices have lead to the dominion of modern industrial food systems. technology) whereby foods are gathered and These later systems benefit from expansion and investments in scale, growing practices household. The opportunities for community (use of herbicides and pesticides, antibiotics hunts persist; however, levels of sharing may be lessening. The amount of food required by transportation, preservatives, and other most families in any given Indigenous northern anthropogenic inputs. They rely on markets of consumers who are not able to provide their However, research is required to substantiate nutritional needs for themselves through gardening, fishing and hunting. The overall orientation to speed up production and lower Overtime, northern Indigenous food systems costs (to boost profits) has lead to innovation. adapted to include modern foodstuffs (metal It has also lead some critics (Hawaleshka hunting and cooking implements, flour and 2004), in particular those who support organic sugar). “Modern foods” were acculturated and farming, to ask: “is there anything that’s really assimilated into northern Indigenous lives, at various speeds and intensities. Almost always something new was created, regardless of the Commercial farming has little opportunity in adaptation the old and new was remade and reformed to northern Indigenous lives (and environments). Whenever new foods did not fit northern realities, whether due to storage, cost including: soil quality, average precipitation or some other reason, they did not last. As food and temperatures, light levels (durations), and systems change, northern communities are being exposed to a wider variety of foods. It has been debated elsewhere that forced or hydroponic grow operations are largely at this unintentional, the introduction of “modern” to time uneconomical (in comparison to the costs Indigenous lives, food or anything else, has of transportation of readily available and caused a range of problems that ultimate relatively inexpensive southern produced undermine Indigenous cultures (Greenblatt 1991, Tough 1996, Krech 1999, Minnis and transportation and packaging, create wastes that are unplanned, causing problems that are Traditional/country food systems continue to be characterized by strong inter-relations between culture and land. Traditional food is If traditional food, such as caribou, becomes intertwined and embedded within cultural scarce in a traditional territory, people have practices --cultural practices nested within several options. If they perceive the change to Plenary 4: Security
be temporary or determine a local cause for the the food chain in all three ecosystems. population loss, they may go further a field to Athabaskan peoples in northern Canada eat find caribou. If hunters do not have the ability large quantities of traditional foods obtained to follow caribou or if there are no more through hunting, fishing, trapping and caribou (extirpation) they may switch to lesser gathering. Since market foods are much more sources of food. By lesser we mean that the expensive in many northern communities than effort expanded to secure food is greater than in the south, traditional food provides many the return, or the return is less then what would components of a quality diet at relatively low have been received, nutritionally speaking, for Besides its nutritional values, the traditional There is a feed back loop in the relationship of diet is also a source of cultural strength and is climate change and food security: as the critical for the social, mental and spiritual climate changes so to will the security of foods well-being of individuals and communities. reflected, and therefore their presence can be As the climate changes, either warming or discerned, at various ecological levels --from landscape to population. We intuitively know precipitation, vegetation, species, etc.? Because we can assume the conditions that “community patterns of traditional food use”, maintain the present system, even if we can not changes that are collectively an ecosystem know for certain the conditions that created it, can we predict what the impacts will be if we warm or cool the average mean temperature An ecosystem can be thought of as the term we over time and space? Can we begin predicting give to the relationships of living and non- living organisms. That is the net pattern of availability, based on what is now being used? relationships of growth and decline with qualities such as robustness, flips, chaos, different climate change scenarios, with cooperation, changes and constancy, etc. Ecosystems are composed of energy patterns, patterns, so we can begin to chart future cycles and a host of organisms. All these demand and what this will mean to us? The ecosystem components and characteristics are impacts on the “social, mental and spiritual inter-related and depend on constants, such as well-being” for northern Indigenous Peoples is soil chemistry, moisture and temperature, populations, etc. Food security depends on a There has been relatively few research studies to date that contribute to our understanding of future conditions under present climate change For a traditional/country food system to be patterns. Predicting what will come to pass must be taken with a grain of salt as the predictable supply and reserve of a range of systems we are talking about are profoundly foods (Kuhnlein et al. 2003). These foods can complex. Cause and effect relationships are not either be seasonal or available all year; so easy to discern, subtle changes can escape however, the sum total of traditional/country manipulation, furthermore households and requirements, a balanced diet of vitamins and adaptation to changes that are unconventional. nutrients that contribute to a relative state of Research studies need to focus on indicators of change and adaptation. Researchers must begin consistent, patterned and seasonal, has a to ask how future warming trends will be profound influence on the ecosystem, with a range of human social organization(s) integral solutions. Rather than painting an alarming to the functioning of such systems. It is picture of significant change in global systems, important to understand the security of what has been, is now, and is predicted to be on the functions (can we assume new and radically altered functions?). Northern ecosystems are the Canadian north is vast, rich in natural particularly vulnerable to change, mostly resources and includes the boreal forest, taiga because change will be so dramatic (ACIA in and Arctic ecosystems. Indigenous peoples top press, Newton et al. in press). Research must Plenary 4: Security
focus on climate change impacts in the north, develop a framework in which to understand including scarcity and uncertainty in traditional adaptive strategies to climate change and to identify potential impacts on food security. Once such research study is beginning in understanding of Indigenous decision-making. Applying this framework to climate change Dickson, Paci). The interdisciplinary team brings together the collective wisdom of understand the effectiveness of traditional McGill University and the University of Laval, knowledge and decision-making under chaning with Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Council of Yukon First Nations, and Dene Nation. These There are limits to what researchers can researchers are working with three northern determine. We hope to find if research can Indigenous communities: Deh Gah Got’ie First answer questions related to adaptation. While we appreciate that traditional knowledge Territories), Whitewater First Nation (Beaver cannot be captured in a scientific model, we Creek, Yukon) and the Inuit community of Kangiqsujuaq in Nunavik (northern Quebec). representations of traditional knowledge, as it The research is a three-year project. Each of the three northern Indigenous communities is knowledge changes with time, is responsive collaborating with researchers as part of a and reflexive, there is a fundamental continuity project to examine the “impacts of climate and connection with the past. Researchers hope change on food security in three northern to discern the variation and thus the optimal Aboriginal Communities-Plans for conditions under which traditional decision-adaptation.” The research is being funded by researchers hope to determine the robust nature of traditional Indigenous decision-making processes. Researchers are gathering both documentary and oral evidence of Athabaskan Dr Chan, CINE at McGill University, will lead and Inuit traditional knowledge related to the Denendeh and Yukon investigations, while climate and climate change and its potential Dr Furgal, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health impacts on food security. During the first year of research a workshop is being held in each University, is leading the Eastern part of this community to gather and document traditional project. Both eastern and western Arctic (experienced hunters/gatherers and elders), representing different food supplies –with the using established research methods (Kuhnlein main objective to understand the relative et al. 2003), adapted in collaboration with each importance of food security under changing of the research communities (in consultation climatic scenarios. These communities are with their national and regional organizations). working with researchers to investigate food security issues for terrestrial freshwater The project may lead to the development of systems as well as coastal systems. Northern protocols for strategic development, for communities differ in that they rely heavily on adaptations to minimize the impacts on the terrestrial, freshwater and marine resources, communities involved; as well as to serve as a depending on proximity and traditional/historic suggested framework of development for other northern communities. The integration of traditional knowledge, cultural practices, with An objective of the Canadian research project is to understand the potential health impacts of climate change on an important aspect of the composition, nutritients, food availability) is lives of northern Indigenous Peoples. Deh Gah particular to each community. However, the Got’ie First Nation, Whitewater First Nation methodology, if it proves effectiveness, and Kangiqsujuaq will serve as case studies, efficacy a measure of its ability to predict food both representing different ecological systems security under environmental change, it can be as well as different traditional food economies. useful for robust decision-making, can serve as Inuit, First Nations in the Yukon and Dene communities, like other northern communities, have strong ties to the land, in particular hunting, whaling and sealing, trapping, berry Eventually other jurisdictions, domestically, should replicate and improve the research Plenary 4: Security
study. An international comparative research including increased releases of greenhouse project should follow the Canadian studies. The Canadian research highlighted here is a step in understanding how traditional systems Newton (et al. in press) note “with projections will cope with climate change. Ultimately of more extreme natural events occurring in more research would be needed to ensure the northern Canada research is crucial to shape methods and conclusions are robust. With this climate change policies respectful of local said the precautionary principle urges us to Indigenous wisdom and the aspirations of also act now to prevent biological loss. The residents to share more fully in the growth and last section of the discussion paper poses development of northern Canada. It is by no means an easy balance to achieve, but it must participants to think about under the rubric of be done thoughtfully, guided by integrated Security and the “Resilient North”, human hazards and climate research with a strong social dimension.” Climate change research has important implications for food security, more circumpolar and comparative studies are The Ability to Respond to
required before cause and effect relationships Environmental or Human
will be known. Implications of food security Disasters
has relevance to a number of areas including: implications for civil security in a world of Sir John Houghton (2003), co-chair of the globalization (including media and other Scientific Assessment Working Group of the cultural practices), education (culturally Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change relevant), adaptations and vulnerabilities. argued global warming was a “weapon of mass-destruction… our long-term security is threatened by a problem at least as dangerous Civil Security in a World of Media
as chemical, nuclear, or biological weapons, or Globalization of Culture
indeed international terrorism: human induced climate change.” Climate change can trigger or There can be no civil security in a world where exacerbate further a number of problems, such food safety, supply and quality, is uncertain. as long-range contaminants in the north. Uncertainty to civil security is experienced in potential health effects of fluctuations of natural food resources on indigenous peoples developing countries. What role will global contaminants, long-range transport, media play? The globalization of culture, accumulation and biomagnification in the including the hegemony of western culture, is Arctic environment will be affected by climate a significant concern for researchers and policy change. Predicting how climate change will makers. The multicultural reality of the alter contaminant mechanisms in the Canadian circumpolar world, begs the question of who is north in a global environmental context investigating climate and health in Nunavik Environmental “injustice” is at the heart of environmental causes for Inuit can have both patterns in the developed world is a significant communities (Furgal et al. 2002). In many driver in climate change. Among those that cases there are far more indirect impacts that have the choice to do so, those urban and first may be much more difficult to detect, but these world economies, shelter consumers from the are just as important if not more so, in terms of uncertainty of supply by developing extensive the importance to the community, than many commercial centers that attract the wealth and of the direct impacts. For example, hydro bounty of food production systems. Developed countries are first among those that eat well centers will continue to have profound effects (perhaps too well?), but developing countries on communities that are directly and indirectly and fourth world economies do not have a impacted by hydro-electric developments, range of choices having instead shortages and narrow or lesser nutritional choices available. Plenary 4: Security
Global processes are having a large impact on and under funded, for example in the Canadian those that have little choice --in the northern example there is no northern climate change regions of the world. There is an inequitable program feeding into a circumpolar process (not like there was on the contaminants issue). activities, with relatively few (globally speaking) benefiting (from consumption of What is sovereignty in the face of climate change? Global processes do not recognize the efforts of one state over the other. Preferential Media and other cultural presentations of food security issues are aimed as telling the story of political structures, border guards, these mean nothing to moving tree lines, degredation of understanding of traditional food systems. permafrost, or an ice-free polar ice cap. Climate change, in particular warming, will Unfortunately, it is a combination (like in the continue to be an issue that draws together all eight nations, either within the Arctic Council processes coalescing (atmospheric currents, or (as is the case with the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Report to be released in the fall of 2004), or other international fora (Nordic Ministers, Baltic States, European Union, (modernity; lifestyle putting people at risk, but also changing health status by region), and cultural loss (culture shock, health and morbidity). Culturally Relevant Education
How do we now talk about climate change and The Meaning of the National
food security? The environment, communities, Borders in a Circumpolar World
and the world is always in a state of change, chaotic but ultimately predictable and constant birth and death. The right context needs to be contaminants, show how the world, Gia, is a brought to this discussion. As we have said self-regulating and incredibly complex and elsewhere in this paper, various forms of resilient system of relationships. Within this knowledge and understanding different aspects of the issues, and all knowledge ought to be currents, ecosystems and bioregions, there are extremely fragile edges and regions that can are severly impacted by domestic national All to often we find southern education, patterns of consumption and waste. Nations, western systems of knowledge, dominating the states, territorial and municipal governments education of northern peoples, in particular can cause, prevent, regulate actions/contexts, northern Indigenous Peoples. The systems of to enable industrial developments. These education that were in effect prior to contact developments may abate, contribute or fail to account for environmental costs and services. Today’s education has been steeped in a rather Without adequate environmental standards in short colonial history across the circumpolar any of these jurisdictions, the circumpolar north (Paci 2002, Bravo and Sorlin 2002). world pays the price. The cumulative effects of University of the Arctic, as well as curriculum from circumpolar universities, and those with a will impact food security, as it is being research/teaching focus on northern issues, are Indigenous language teaching is addressing the hegemony and loss of small language families. Food security is intimately linked to education. Students and teachers will value (and eat) communicate results, and feed research into foods that are advanced by their institutions and curriculum. The development of culturally contaminants has been a hurclean effort by a relevant education must permeate all aspects of relative few (Jensen et al. 1997, CACAR 2 northern Indigenous peoples lives, as well as 2003, Downie and Fenge 2003). Such an effort reflecting their values. The double bind most has not yet been made with regards to climate jurisdictions find themselves in, simply, is the change, rather, the efforts are uncoordinated trap of national standards and educational Plenary 4: Security
structures that erase local/regional interests. imported foods are often the lowest quality: The many conflicts between “a national highest in saturated fats, preservative, culture” and the plurality of Indigenous processed, etc. Van Oostdam (et al. 2003:i) cultures goes beyond standards, to include note “traditional/country food are an integral assumptions about the viability of multiple component of good health among Aboriginal cultures. If education is to support food peoples. The social, cultural, spiritual, security, it must advance traditions and nutritional and economic benefits of these plurality, while serving the larger interests of foods must be considered in concert with the improving how we relate to each other and ensure the environment for future generations. contaminants through their consumption of Culturally relevant education must marry western science with traditional knowledge, both in delivery (pedagogy) as well as in research used to support our lessons. Conclusions
Adaptation and Vulnerability in
the Context of Global Change
Indigenous Peoples Secretariat (of the Arctic Council), included a statement prepared for the The literature on climate change often speaks Permanent Participants, who called on “the about the adaptation and vulnerabilities of nations of the world to increase efforts to northern communities. It is true that rural, develop international instruments to deal with the effects of mercury and other heavy metals sensitive to global changes, economic as well that threaten the human and environmental as environmental. Housing, education and health care infrastructure (facilities and human Dickson (2003:3) notes “the effects of climate resources) and services are examples of areas change in the north on indigenous peoples’ ability to locate and procure these physically, adequate coverage. Sensitivity comes from social, culturally, mentally and economically population shifts and dependence for services predictions for the future, they are a reality in communities are even more sensitive due to many communities today. However, the extent lack of access to services and markets that are of these impacts and their implications for the external to the local community. We are seeing nutritional well-being of individuals and the urbanization of some northern cities, which communities is not yet well understood.” More were at one time villages, cities that are not research is needed on food security, on climate sustainable, except for the cash economies change, research that engages Indigenous regional/national and international processes. What is often undervalued in the discussions about impacts and adaptations is a complete respectful and responsible research, beyond the understanding of traditional economies, which ethical reviews of universities and colleges far removed from the peoples and lands under resources. Traditional economies in a modern context are not entirely closed systems. There provides us an opportunity to build research exists a balance between import/export of partnerships and alliances. Ultimately our goods and services (movement of people). The success in understanding the resilient north replacement of local capacity to adapt and address vulnerabilities that may be exposed by traditional knowledge and western science. global change is a paradox. For example, the services supplied by traditional economies, the Changes related to climate variables and the value of traditional/country foods go beyond impacts these changes have on communities food, “Traditional foods can also provide are being reported and documented in some protection against many diseases, which are northern regions (for example ACIA). The more prevalent among southern populations. Dene and other Athabaskans, Inuit, Metis, Environmental influences on the availability of Sami, Aluetians, Russian Indigenous Peoples, and access to these important sources of food, are contributing case studies from domestic present the risk of losing these beneficial processes. For example the Dene have the factors as well” (Dickson 2003:3). If we replace local food with imported food, the Plenary 4: Security
Northern Ecosystem Initiative. Climate change Downie, D., and T.Fenge (eds.) 2003 Northern observations and views in the north are being Lights Against POPs: Combatting Toxic Threats in the Arctic. Montreal : McGill- Assessment Report. Moreover, climate change is being lived in the circumpolar north and Indigenous Peoples are talking about the Eramus, B. C.Paci and S.Fox (revised April changes they are seeing in the land. They are 2003, in press) “A Study in Institution again turning to scientists, the south and the Building for Dene Governance in the Canadian international world to halt what is fast North: A History of the Development of the becoming a losing war. The challenge for Dene National Office” Indigenous Nations southern and northern peoples will be to ascertain the relationship between these changes, experienced as they are as pressures on local food security, and to work collectively “Climate Change and Health in Nunavik and to develop appropriate adaptation responses Labrador: Lessons from Inuit Knowledge” I. and strategies. Ultimately we have all got to Krupnik and D. Jolly (eds.) The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of advantage of any opportunities these changes Arctic Environmental Change. Washington, D.C.: Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), Arctic Studies Centre, Smithsonian Institution. 266-300. References cited
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Biodiversity and Native America. Norman: Montreal : McGill-Queen’s University Press. Newton, J., C.Paci and A.Ogden (revised February 2004 in press “A Preliminary Investigation of Policy Implications of Climate i Dr Paci is the Manager of lands and environment, Dene Nation. He is an advisor to the Arctic Canada” International Perspectives on Natural Athabaskan Council (AAC)-Canada. AAC is one of Disasters and Hazards Mitigation vol(ed):1- six Permanent Participants to the Arctic Council. Mrs Dickson is the Executive Director, AAC, and works for the Council of Yukon First Nations (CYFN). She is a member of the Vuntut Gwich’in Nickels, S. C., Furgal, J.Castelden, P.Moss- Davies, M.Buell, B.Armstrong, B., D. Dillon, iii Dr Nickels is the Director of environment, Inuit and R.Fonger 2002. “Putting the Human Face iv Dr Chan is an National Science and Engineering Workshops” I.Krupnik and D.Jolly (eds.) The Research Council (NSERC) Northern Research Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations Chair and a faculty member of Center for of Arctic Environmental Change. Washington: Indigenous Nutrition and Environment (CINE), ARCUS, Arctic Studies Centre, Smithsonian McGill University. He is co- principle investigator on the Climate Change Impacts Adaptations Directorate (Natural Resources Canada -NRCan), Earth Science Secretariat research on climate change and human health, under the Impacts and Kitikmeot Inuit Asssociation, and Qikiqtani Inuit Association 2001. “Elder’s Conference v Dr Furgal is a faculty member of Center for Health on Climate Change” Report to Indian and University of Laval (CHUL) and a co-lead of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Report (ACIA) Health Chapter. He is also co- principle investigator Paci, C. 2002. “Developing Decolonizing Curriculum: A Case Study of First Nations Studies Certificate Development” Saskatoon: Canadian Indigenous/Native Studies Association, Proceedings of the Annual Conference 2001. 32-49. The Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) 2003. The Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report, 2. Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Plenary 4: Security

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