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3-14-05 pg12.pmd

March 14, 2005
Volume 77, Number 11
Rumen inert fat supplements
reviewed for dairy cows

The mode of action for reducedintake when using calcium salts 1. Effects of feeding FFAs and CaSFAs to lactating dairy cows
on milk production and milk components; means are differences
between FFAs and CaSFAs (FFA-CaSFA)
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Effects of feeding FFAs and CaSFAs to lactating dairy cows on
DMI, fatty acid digestibility and bodyweight changes; means
are differences between FFAs and CaSFAs (FFA-CaSFA)
and A.F. KERTZ
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ countries of lactating dairy cow rations.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ aData corrected for one cow that had low value. FFA and CaSFA comparison made at 680 g daily intake of each fat source. Digestibilities were 87.4 and 84.9% for CaSFAs and FFAs, respectively.
The 910 g daily intake treatment for FFAs resulted in digestibility of 87.2%. Using marginaldigestibility measurements from Grummer (1998), each 100 g additional fat intake should result in 2.8% lower digestibility. Using 910 g versus 680 g of FFAs, digestibility at 680 g should be greater than 90% [(910-680) = 230/100 = 2.3 x 2.8 = 6.44 + 87.2 = 93.64% digestibility at 680 g FFA intake].
However, the correction in Grummer’s study was used in this Table.
NA indicates data not available in paper.
3. Effects of CaSFAs and saturated fats fed to lactating dairy cows
on DMI, 4% FCM, milk components and bodyweight change; means
are differences between control and CaSFA or saturated fats
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ low (PHT), calcium salts of fatty acids(CaSFAs) and hydrogenated free fatty 4. Effects of CaSFAs and hydrogenated fat on DMI, expressed
as percent DMI depression for each 1% added fat to the ration
dry matter above control ration
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ■ Dr. L.C. Solorzano is with Milk Spe- _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ cialties Co., Dundee, Ill. Dr. A.F. Kertz is with ANDHIL LLC, St. Louis, Mo. 2005 Feedstuffs. Reprinted with permission from Vol. 77, No. 11, March 14, 2005.
2 — FEEDSTUFFS, March 14, 2005
chemically altering them to be used in
a dry form, thus providing dairy pro-ducers with a more functional physical 5. Biohydrogenation (%) of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen
form and facilitating on-farm handling.
of cows fed CaSFAs at 3% of the ration dry matter
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ crease the melting point of the end prod- uct. Tallow or vegetable fats may con-tain as much as 85% unsaturated fatty 6. Effects of abomasally infusing into lactating dairy cows 450 g
of either PUFA or saturated fatty acids (SFA) on DMI, total
fatty acid digestibility percent (TFADIG%) and DEI
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ No. of ------DMI, lb./day------ ------TFADIG, %----- -----DEI, Mcal/day----- _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ etable fats reduces negative effects fatty _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ aDMI linear contrast P < 0.02; DEI linear contrast P < 0.01.
uct and its potential for value in lactat- bDEI orthogonal contrast of SFA versus PUFA P < 0.05.
cMeans with different superscripts within DMI or DEI differ by P < 0.05.
7. Effects of CaSFAs on DMI and milk production of lactating dairy cows
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ------------------------------% CaSFAs in DMI----------------------------- _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ oil or other fat sources are hydrolyzedand reacted with calcium to form salts, 8. Effects of CaSFAs in diets on reproductive
parameters of lactating dairy cows
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ No. of --conception rate, %-- --Pregnancy rate, %-- _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ extensively hydrogenated in the rumen.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ meal or when manipulating pH in vitro.
9. Effects of mostly saturated dietary FFAs in diets
on reproductive parameters of lactating dairy cows
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ men fermentation and possibly to DMI.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ FFA treatment significantly differs from control at indicated P-level.
10. Effects of prepartum FFAs fed to dry cows during last
three weeks of gestation on reproductive measures
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ March 14, 2005 FEEDSTUFFS — 3
11. Effects of FFAs fed to prepartum cows on early ovulation
and pregnancy rates during subsequent lactation
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ---First ovulation prior to 50 days postpartum--- _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ et al., 1984; Chan et al., 1997). Theyalso have been shown to have minimalor no negative effects on DMI the remainder of this article will be de- if a nutritionist or a dairy producer de- cided to replace 0.5 lb. of corn, or 0.45 Effects on milk production
tively affected by both saturated fats (P < 0.05) and CaSFAs (P < 0.05) but less ing 50 lb. per day of dry matter and that trol, a 2.5% DMI depression was found.
This finding is reiterated in the National Effects on DMI
ity effects of four different fat products ids delivered by either CaSFAs or FFAs.
cient for digested fat than digested car- fat to the diet does not always result in lished in the Journal of Dairy Science (Chilliard, 1993; Allen, 2000), it is evi- numerically greater DMI than CaSFAs.
4 — FEEDSTUFFS, March 14, 2005
served to be inert in the rumen in an in vitro trial (Sukhija and Palmquist, CaSFAs were 58% biohydrogenated in calving for lactating cows to reach posi- total energy intake was the key factor.
(2000) estimated a reduction of only 3.5- ible energy intake (DEI) was greater than in DMI, the level of energy intake is lim- ited, which, in turn, limits the return to Effects on reproduction
effects of unsaturated fatty acids on fi- showed significant positive effects of ru- rations on services per conception, preg- Sklan et al. (1994), Moallem et al. (1997), nation of negative results, positive results tide concentrations in lactating cows.
differences (P < 0.05) between treatments for either first service conception rate or bilization of body fat stores. This study vidual fatty acids contribute very little early-lactation cows in these studies.
90%) in the digestibility of dietary lip- March 14, 2004 FEEDSTUFFS — 5
centrations in the non-esterified fatty ac- ids (NEFA) fraction of follicular fluid in estradiol-active versus estradiol-inactive or estradiol-less active follicles as deter- efficient between these unsaturated fatty Conclusions
follicular fluid suggested that preovula- of the dry period (i.e., close-up cows).
physical properties, particularly for on- crease in these two fatty acids and an in- farm use. PHT is limited primarily by its crease in the proportion of palmitic acid.
fraction of follicular fluid of estradiol- active follicles over the inactive or less in their diets had higher (P < 0.05) preg- active follicles. Stearic acid in the phos- cantly higher (P < 0.05) than the less active or inactive follicles (26.4 versus greater DMI and palatability of FFAs.
to be pregnant at 220 days postpartum.
highly correlated (r = 0.58, P < 0.0001) These results are the first to show a ben- efit when fat was fed to dry cows. A pos- REFERENCES
The extensive list of references may be found at or by contacting Tim Lundeen at


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