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PEDIATRICPHARMACOTHERAPYA Monthly Newsletter for Health Care Professionals from theChildren’s Medical Center at the University of Virginia Doxycycline for Pediatric Infections
Marcia L. Buck, Pharm.D., FCCP
T traditionally been limited in young children because of their ability to cause permanent staining of developing teeth. However, the Doxycycline is considered the antibiotic of increasing incidence of tick-borne diseases, such choice in the treatment of RMSF and all other rickettsial diseases in children and adults by the ehrlichiosis, and Lyme disease, as well as American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the bioterrorism attacks involving anthrax, has led to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention a renewed interest in this class. Doxycycline, a (CDC).1,5,8,9 Until 1991, chloramphenicol was synthetic derivative of tetracycline, is now recommended for children less than 8 years of considered the drug of choice in several pediatric age, but the lack of an oral liquid dosage infections. It offers a similar antimicrobial formulation, the potential for chloramphenicol- spectrum to tetracycline, but has greater associated blood dyscrasias, and new research bioavailability, a longer half-life, and a more suggesting minimal staining of dental enamel favorable adverse effect profile.1,2 This issue of with doxycycline has changed this standard. Pediatric Pharmacotherapy will review the basic pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and dosing of effective in the treatment of RMSF.10-12 In a retrospective review by Dalton and colleagues, doxycycline was associated with improved Tetracycline antibiotics, including doxycycline, survival compared to chloramphenicol. The are bacteriostatic. They inhibit protein synthesis success of treatment was also directly related to by reversibly binding to the 30S ribosomal the rapidity of diagnosis and initiation of subunit of susceptible organisms. As a result, antibiotics. Mortality rose from 2% in children they prevent the binding of aminoacyl transfer treated within four days of the onset of symptoms RNA, thus inhibiting protein synthesis and to 6% in patients who did not receive treatment until after the fourth day of illness.10 A second study published the same year showed an increase in mortality from 6.5% to 22.9% when Tetracyclines have a broad spectrum of activity; comparing patients treated within the first five but bacterial resistance, particularly among Gram days of illness to those whose therapy began positive organisms, is common. Doxycycline is currently the drug of choice for all rickettsial infections, including RMSF, ehrlichiosis, and Despite the need for prompt initiation of therapy, murine typhus. It is also used for Bacillus there is often reluctance to begin doxycycline. In anthracis (the cause of anthrax), Bartonella a retrospective review of 35 children presenting with signs and symptoms of rickettsial disease at burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Brucella sp., Texas Children’s Hospital between 1987 and Chlamydia sp., Clostridium sp., Mycobacterium 1999, only one child was started on doxycycline sp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Ureaplasma at admission. Fifty-four percent were eventually urealyticum, and Vibrio sp. infections.
treated with an antirickettsial agent. The authors prophylaxis for malaria in areas with chloroquine rickettsial disease and hesitancy to use a strains of Plasmodium falciparum.2-7 Doxycycline is also the drug of choice for the Doxycycline is generally well tolerated. The treatment of early localized Lyme disease. In most frequently reported adverse effects in addition, it is often used in the treatment of early children and adults include: nausea, diarrhea, disseminated and late disease. At this time, the rash, and photosensitivity.2-4 Sun exposure may recommendation for treatment with doxycycline also result in photoonycholysis, separation of the is restricted to adults and children greater than 8 nail plate from the bed after exposure to years of age because of the risk for dental ultraviolet light.18 Parenteral use has been staining. Amoxicillin is still considered the drug associated with phlebitis and pain at the site of infusion. Although rare, cases of elevated intracranial pressure and pseudotumor cerebri have been reported in patients receiving doxycycline. Other rare adverse effects include In response to bioterrorist activity in 2001, the neutropenia, hypoglycemia, hepatotoxicity, and postexposure prophylaxis and treatment of anthrax infections in children and adults.15-17 In these guidelines, ciprofloxacin and doxycycline The primary adverse effect of tetracyclines which are considered equivalent agents of choice, limits their use in children is deposition in teeth regardless of patient age. The choice of agent and bone. The mechanism for this effect is may be based on availability and tolerability; believed to be deposition of the complex formed there is not enough clinical data available in from chelation of tetracyclines to calcium. children to determine the ideal treatment Staining of the teeth is permanent and appears to be the result of enamel hypoplasia. Patients are inhalational exposure, additional agents may also at risk at any time during dental development, be used. Because of reports of beta-lactam from the second half of pregnancy through the resistance, penicillins, including amoxicillin, are first seven years of life. Growth retardation from no longer recommended as initial therapy, but deposition in bone has been less widely reported, may be used when the specific isolate of B. t appears to be most significant when the anthracis implicated is determined to be tetracycline is administered during pregnancy or in the neonatal period. Unlike the staining of teeth, the effect on bone appears to be transient, with a gradual reversal after discontinuation of administration, with peak serum concentrations averaging 3 to 4 mcg/ml within 2 hours of a 200 The chelation of calcium is common to all of the mg oral dose. It is widely distributed throughout agents in the class, and has resulted in a general the body, and is 80 to 95% protein bound. contraindication for their use in children less than Doxycycline is primarily concentrated in the bile. 8 years of age since the 1970’s. In cases where a It is eliminated through the feces and via renal tetracycline antibiotic is indicated, doxycycline is excretion as unchanged drug. The average rate generally preferred over other tetracyclines of clearance in adults is approximately 75 ml/min because it is less strongly bound to calcium and with an elimination half-life of 18 to 22 hours after multiple dosing. No dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal dysfunction.2-4 Although several investigators have attempted to correlate the frequency and severity of dental staining with the duration and/or dose of The bioavailability of doxycycline may be tetracycline antibiotics, their conclusions have reduced by concomitant administration with been limited by the length of time needed for calcium, aluminum, or magnesium supplements assessment and the lack of adequate controls. or antacids. Absorption may also be impaired by In the May 1998 issue of The Pediatric administration with cholestyramine, colestipol, kaolin, pectin, zinc, iron, or bismuth salicylate. colleagues described the results of a retrospective The rate of clearance of doxycycline may be study of children given doxycycline for RMSF increased by concurrent use of carbamazepine, over a 7 year period.20 Each of the 10 treated children who participated in the study were Doxycycline may increase the effect of warfarin matched with two controls. The mean age of the or theophylline, and decrease the effectiveness of patients who had been treated was 13.7 years (range 11 to 19 years), and their average age at the time of treatment was 5.1 years. In four of the 10 cases, the median tooth color score was for clinics with limited access to liquid dosage higher than that of the controls, indicating more staining. In three cases, the controls had more staining; and in each of the remaining three Because the bitterness of doxycycline is not cases, there was no difference between the masked by water, the FDA recommends crushing controls and the study subject. Using the doxycycline tablets and mixing them with a soft combined data, the authors concluded that there food or drink. Researchers at the FDA have was no significant difference in tooth enamel conducted stability and palatability studies of staining in children who received a single course several common combinations.23,24 Despite the of doxycycline compared to matched controls.
doxycycline/milk mixtures were stable for 24 hours at room temperature, without significant Doxycycline is available in a wide variety of loss of drug. The doxycycline/chocolate milk dosage formulations, including 50, 75, and 100 mixture was found to be stable for at least six formulations, a 25 mg/ 5 ml oral suspension and a 50 mg/ 5 ml syrup. Doxycycline injection is Doxycycline is the antibiotic of choice for RMSF, ehrlichiosis, and Lyme disease in children. It is also one of the antibiotics In adolescents and adults, the recommend oral or recommended for older children and adults who parenteral dose for doxycycline is 100 mg given have been exposed to anthrax. Compared to its every 12 hours. For children, the recommended parent compound tetracycline, doxycycline has a dose is 2 to 4 mg/kg/day (up to 200 mg/day) greater bioavailability, allowing administration with food or milk. In addition, doxycycline has a references list the dose as 2.2 to 4.4 mg/kg/day, more favorable adverse effect profile, with less based on a conversion from the original 1 to 2 tendency to stain dental enamel. While not without drawbacks, doxycycline has a unique should be continued for a minimum of 1 week for role in the treatment of pediatric infections.
RMSF and 2 to 3 weeks for Lyme disease.3-7,21 References
After exposure to anthrax, the CDC recommends 1. Purvis JJ, Edwards MS. Doxycycline use for rickettsial disease in pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19:871-4.
doxycycline for a period of 60 days. Children 2. Shetty AK. Tetracyclines in pediatrics revisited. Clin 3. Burnham TH, ed. Drug Facts and Comparisons. 2003. St. < 8 years: 2.2 mg/kg/dose given twice Louis: Facts and Comparisons, Inc.:348-348a.
4. Vibramycin® product information. Pfizer, Inc. November > 8 years and < 45 kg: 2.2 mg/kg/dose 5. American Academy of Pediatrics. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In: Pickering LK, ed. 2003 Red Book: Report > 8 years and > 45 kg: 100 mg given of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2003:533-4.
6. American Academy of Pediatrics. Ehrlichia infections. In: Pickering LK, ed. 2003 Red Book: Report of the Committee It is typically recommended that oral doxycycline on Infectious Diseases. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: doses be administered with water or juice. American Academy of Pediatrics; 2003:266-9. 7. American Academy of Pediatrics. Lyme disease. In: Antacids, milk or other dairy products, infant Pickering LK, ed. 2003 Red Book: Report of the Committee formula, and iron supplements should be given 1 on Infectious Diseases. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: hour before or at least 2 hours after a dose to American Academy of Pediatrics; 2003:407-11. allow optimal absorption. Doxycycline may be 8. Buckingham SC. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a review for the pediatrician. Pediatr Ann 2002;31:163-8.
given with other foods to reduce gastric upset.
9. Masters EJ, Olson GS, Weiner SJ, et al. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician’s dilemma. Arch Intern Med The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently published information on the stability of 10. Dalton MJ, Clarke MJ, Holman RC, et al. National crushed doxycycline tablets mixed with food or surveillance for Rocky Mountain spotted fever: 1981-1992: epidemiologic summary and evaluation of risk factors for drinks.22-24 For ease of storage, the government fatal outcome. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1995;52:405-13.
stockpile of drugs to avert a bioterrorism attack 11. Anon. Consequences of delayed diagnosis of Rocky includes doxycycline in tablet form. The FDA Mountain spotted fever in children- West Virginia, Michigan, Tennessee, and Oklahoma, May-July 2000. MMWR 2000;49(39):885-8.
preparation of the tablet form into a liquid for younger children. This information is also useful 12. Kirkland KB, Wilkinson WE, Sexton DJ. Therapeutic delay and mortality in cases of Rocky Mountain spotted The authors of this review focus on the role of fever. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:1118-21.
13. Shapiro ED, Gerber MA. Lyme disease: fact versus the newer once-daily methylphenidate products 14. Wormser GP, Nadelman RB, Dattwyler RJ, et al. Practice deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In guidelines for the treatment of Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis addition to a comparison of these products, the article is also a useful tool for those needing a 15. Anon. Update: investigation of anthrax associated with intentional exposure and interim public health guidelines, basic review of methylphenidate pharmacology. The pharmacokinetic section is very thorough, and includes a discussion of possible gender- antimicrobial prophylaxis for children and breastfeeding based differences. Markowitz JS, Straughn AB, mothers and treatment of children with anthrax. MMWR 2001;50:1014-6.
Patrick KS. Advances in the pharmacotherapy of 17. Benavides S, Nahata MC. Anthrax: safe treatment for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: focus on children. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:334-7.
18. Yong CKK, Prendiville J, Peacock DL, et al. An unusual Pharmacotherapy 2003;23:1281-99.
Pediatrics 2000;106:e13.
19. Basaria S, Braga M, Moore WT. Doxycycline-induced Formulary Update
hypoglycemia in a nondiabetic young man. South Med J Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee during 20. Lochary ME, Lockhart PB, Williams WT. Doxycycline and staining of permanent teeth. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1. Hepatitis A inactivated and hepatitis B 21. American Academy of Pediatrics. Tables of antibacterial recombinant vaccine (Twinrix®) was approved drug dosages. In: Pickering LK, ed. 2003 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2003:712. Formularies. This combination vaccine is 22. Anon. How to prepare emergency dosages of doxycycline indicated for immunization of adults ages 18 at home for infants and children. Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. 2. Atazanavir (Reyataz®), an azapeptide HIV-1 Available at www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/penG_doxy protease inhibitor, was added for use in /doxycyclinePeds.htm (accessed 9/30/03).
23. Yu LX, Nguyenpho A, Roberts R, et al. Palatability combination with other antiretroviral agents for evaluations of doxycycline solid dosage tablets ground and mixed in food or drinks. Food and Drug Administration 3. Emtricitabine (Emtriva®), a deoxycytidine Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Available at analog nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/penG_doxy/doxy_food.htm(accessed 9/30/03).
was added for the treatment of patients with HIV. 24 Brower JF, Moore TW, Reepmeyer JC, et al. Stability and It is also under investigation for the treatment of dose uniformity evaluations of doxycycline solid dosage tablets ground and mixed in food or drinks. Food and Drug 4. The restrictions on the use of drotecogin alfa Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Available at www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/penG_doxy (activated protein C, Xigris®) were amended to /stability_tables.htm (accessed 9/30/03).
allow use in either patients with sepsis-induced dysfunction of two or more organ systems or in Pharmacology Literature Review
patients with APACHE II scores greater than 25. Cisapride and Cytochrome P450 Development The contraindication of chronic renal failure was Cisapride, a prokinetic agent, was widely used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in 5. The influenza virus live vaccine, intranasal infants and children prior to reports of its (FluMist®) was tabled pending further economic association with arrhythmias. This study was conducted to define the basic pharmacokinetic profile of the drug in infants and to use the drug Contributing Editor:Marcia L. Buck, Pharm.D. as a means of studying the development of the Editorial Board: Anne E. Hendrick, Pharm.D. authors found that cisapride absorption and metabolism were related to developmental stage, If you have comments or suggestions for future with a reduced clearance in infants compared to issues, please contact us at Box 800674, UVA older children and adults. Using cisapride as a Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908 or marker, a rapid increase in cytochrome P450 3A4 activity was seen during the first three www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/pediatr Wilson JT, et al. Cisapride disposition in neonates and infants: in vivo reflection of cytochrome Pharmacol Ther 2003;74:312-25.

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