MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Date of Issue: October 1997
STATEMENT OF HAZARDOUS NATURE
Hazardous according to criteria of Worksafe Australia
PO Box 111, Thuringowa Central Qld. 4817 Australia
37 Framara Drive, Kelso, Qld, 4815. Australia
Dangerous Goods Class
and Subsidiary Risk
Physical Description and Properties
Boiling Point/Melting Point
Solubility in water
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
The Alpha-Pinene component (57.4%) is a narcotic. It may cause burning, nausea, vomiting,diarrhea, dysuria, hematuria, unconsciousness, shallow respiration and convulsions. Aspirationmay cause direct lung irritation resulting in pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Anuria,pulmonary edema and bronchial pneumonia may complicate recovery.
The Toluene component (41.6%) is a narcotic. It may cause a burning sensation in theepigastrium and abdominal spasms. Aspiration of the liquid into the lungs may cause coughing,gagging, distress, acute hemorrhagic pneumonitis, and rapidly developing pulmonary edema.
The approximate lethal dose in humans is 15-30mL.
The 2,6-Di-Tert-Butyl-P-Cresol component (1%) may cause nausea, vomiting, epigastriccramping, grastritus, generalised weakness, confusion, dizziness, and brief loss ofconsciousness. Sensitisation and allergic anaphylatic reactions are possible. Allergic dermatitishas been reported with acute flares of vesicular dermatitis. Positive sequential vascularresponses hava also been reported with intensification of rhinitis and asthma, diaphoresis,somnolence, headaches, retrosternal pain radiating to the back, flushing, and conjunctivalsuffusion.
The Alpha-Pinene component (57.4%) is corrosive. The liquid is highly discomforting to theeyes and is capable of causing a mild, temporary redness of the conjunctiva (similar to wind-burn), temporary impairment of vision and/or other transient eye damage/ulceration.
The Toluene component (41.6%) is an irritant. The liquid produces a high level of eyediscomfort and is capable of causing pain and severe conjunctivitis. Corneal injury maydevelop, with possible permanent impairment of vision, if not promptly and adequately treated.
The vapour is discomforting to the eyes if exposure is prolonged. The material may producesevere irritation to the eye casuing pronouned inflammation.
The 2,6-Di-Tert-Butyl-P-Cresol component (1%) is an irritant. The material may producemoderate eye irritation leading to inflammation.
The Alpha-Pinene component (57.4%) is an irritant. Contact with the liquid may cause irritationand may be absorbed to cause headache, dizziness, confusion, stupefaction, coma and death.
The Toluene component (41.6%) is an irritant. Contact with the liquid may cause irritation.
Vapours may cause drying. Skin absorption does occur, but it is generally too slow to producesigns of acute systemic toxicity.
The 2,6-Di-Tert-Butyl-P-Cresol component (1%) may cause irritation, urticarial reactions, andeczematous dermatitis. Sensitisation reactions may occur in previously exposed individuals.
The vapour of the Alpha-Pinene component (57.4%) is discomforting to the upper respiratorytract and lungs. Inhalation hazard is increased at higher temperatures. Inhalation of highconcentrations for prolonged periods may cause dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting andcoma.
The Toluene component (41.6%) is an irritant/narcotic/neurotoxin. 2000ppm immediatelydangerous to life or health. Odour detection may be insufficient for warning due to olfactoryfatigue. Exposure to 100ppm may cause irritation. 200-600ppm for up to 8 hours cased fatigue,weakness, confusion, headache, nausea, impaired co-ordination and reaction time, paresthesiasof the skin, euphoria, dizziness, and dilated pupils. 800ppm caused rapid irritation, nasalmucous secretion, metallic taste, drowsiness, and impaired balance. After effects includingnervousness, muscular fatigue, and insomnia lasted for several days. A worker foundunconscious after exposure to high vapour concen-trations for 18 hours developed hepatic andrenal damage with myoglobinuria. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Hematologiceffects occur rarely with exposure to high concentrations. Death may be due to respiratoryfailure or ventricular fibrillation.
Prolonged or repeated exposure to toluene may cause mucous membrane irritation,vomiting, insomnia, nosebleeds, chest pains, euphoria, headache, vertigo, nausea,anorexia, momentary loss of memory, loss of coordination and impairment of reactiontime, tinnitus, impaired speech, vision and/or hearing, alcohol intolerance, and petechiaeand abnormal bleeding. Examination of workers exposed to 100ppm revealedhepatomegaly, mild macrocytoosis, moderate erythropenia, and absolute lymphocytosisbut no leukopenia. Other workers exposed to toluene fumes developed leukopenia andespecially neutropenia. Within 6 months, they showed decreased prothrombin level andincreased coagulation time. Periodontal effects were also noted. Volunteers exposed to200ppm for 6 hours/day for 2 days showed significant increase in heart rate. Cardiacsensitisation may occur and may result in cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillationl.
Repeated inhalation to the point of euphoria has caused irreversible encephalopathy withcerebellar ataxia, rhythmic limb movements, disequilibrium, bizarre behaviour,emotional lability, optic atrophy, and diffuse cerebral atrophy. Other neuropsychiatriceffects may include dizziness, syncope, paresthesias, peripheral neuropathy,hallucinations, lethargy, and coma. Intentional sniffing can produce renal tubular defectswith metabolic acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities and potassium loss. Severe muscleweakness leading to limb paralysis and cardiac arrhythmias may result from thehypokalemia; however, sensory function and tendon reflexes are not impaired.
Gastrointestinal effects may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and hematemesis.
Chromosome changes were observed in some workers up to two years after cessation ofexposure to toluene. Women occupationally exposed to toluene have reported menstrualdisorders, underweight offspring who did not nurse well, and foetal asphyxia. One casestudy indicated toluene apparently crossed the placenta and created cerebellar damage inan unborn infant. Dysmenorrhea has been reported in women occupationally exposed totoluene levels of 60-100ppm. Prolonged or repeated contact with the liquid may causedefatting of the skin with a dry fissured dermatitisChronic exposure to Alpha-Pinene may cause kidney and bladder damage, chronicnephritis with albuminuria and hematuria. Contact with the liquid may cause determitisand may be absorbed to cause liver and kidney damage. Repeated or prolonged contactwith vapours may cause conjunctivitis.
Chronic exposure to 2,6-Di-Tert-Butyl-P-Cresol may cause an allergic skin responsewith eczematous dermatitis. A cutaneous, urticarial, disseminated eruption has beenreported.
Treat symptomatically and supportively. Get medical attention.
Wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water or normal saline, occasionallylifting upper and lower lids, until no evidence of chemical remains (at least 15 - 20minutes). Get medical attention immediately.
Remove contaminated clothing and shoes immediately. Wash with soap or milddetergent and large amounts of water until no evidence of chemical remains (at least 15 -20 minutes).Get medical attention immediately.
Remove from exposure area to fresh air immediately. Apply artificial respiration if notbreathing. Maintain airway, blood pressure and respiration. Keep warm and at rest. Treatsymptomatically and supportively. Get medical attention immediately.
First Aid Facilities:
Where there is any possibility that an employee’s eyes and/or skin may be exposed tothis substance, the employer should provide an eye wash fountain and quick drenchshower within the immediate work area for emergency use.
Advice to Doctor
Following acute or short term repeated exposures to toluene:1. Toluene is absorbed across to alveolar barrier, the blood/air mixture being 11.2/15.6(at 37 deg. C). The order of toluene, in expired breath, is of the order of 18ppmfollowing sustained exposure to 100ppm. The tissue/blood proportion is 1/3 except inadipose where the proportion is 8/10.
2. Metabolism by microsomal mono-oxygenation, results in the production of hippuricacid. This may be detected in the urine in amounts between 0.5 and 2.5g/24hours whichrepresents, on average 0.8g/g of creatinine. The biological half life of hippuric acid is inthe order of 1-2 hours.
3. Primary threat to life from ingestion and/or inhalation, is respiratory failure.
4. Patients should be quickly evaluated for signs of respiratory distress (e.g. cyanosis,tachypnoea, intercostal retraction, obtundation) and given oxygen. Patients withinadequate tidal volumes or poor arterial blood gases (pO2 <50mm Hg or pCO2 >50mmHg) should be intubated.
5. Arrhythmias complicate some hydrocarbon ingestion and/or inhalation andelectrocardiographic evidence of myocardial injury has been reported; intravenous linesand cardias monitors should be established in obviously symptomatic patients. The lungsexcrete inhaled solvents, so that hyperventilation improves clearance.
6. A chest x-ray should be taken immediately after stabilisation of breathing andcirculation to document aspiration and detect the presence of pneumathorax.
7. Epinephrine (adrenalin) is not recommended for treatment of bronchospasm becauseof potential myocardial sensitisation to catecholamines. Inhaled cardioselectivebronchodilators (e.g. Alupent, Salbutamol) are the preferred agents, with aminophylline asecond choice.
8. Lavage is indicated in patients sho require decontamination; ensure use of cuffedendotracheal tube in adult patients. [Ellenhorn and Barceloux: Medical Toxicology]In acute poisonings by essential oils the stomach should be emptied by aspiration andlavage. Give a saline purgative such as sodium sulfate (30g in 250mL water) unlesscatharsis is already present. Demulcent drinks may also be given. Large volumes of fluidshould be given provided renal function is adequate. [MARTINDALE: The ExtraPharmacopoeia, 28th Ed.]
PRECAUTIONS FOR USE
Alpha-Pinene (57.4%): CEL TWA 100ppm, 550mg/m3Toluene (41.6%) ES TWA: 100ppm, 377mg/m3; STEL: 150ppm, 565mg/m32,6-Di-Tert-Butyl-P-Cresol (1%) TLV TWA: 10mg/m3 A4
Provide local exhaust or precess enclosure ventilation to meet published exposure limits.
Any type ‘C’ supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand orother positive pressure mode or with a full facepiece, helmet or hood operated incontinuous-flow mode. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepieceoperated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. Employee must wearappropriate protective (impervious) clothing and equipment, appropriate protectivegloves and splash-proof or dust-resistant safety goggles and a faceshield to preventcontact with this substance.
Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame or shock.
SAFE HANDLING INFORMATION
Storage and Transport:
UN1993. DG Class 3. Flammable liquids n.o.s. (contains toluene)
Spills and Disposal:
Absorb with vermiculite or other suitable material. Place in a suitable container (plastic),for later disposal.
Firefighting media: dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water, spray or regular foam. Forlarger fires, use water spray, fog or regular foam. Move container from fire area if youcan do it without risk. Apply cooling water to sides of containers that are exposed toflames until well after fire is out. Avoid breathing vapours, keep upwind.
(Materials to avoid)
allyl chloride + dichloroethyl aluminium of ethylaluminium sesquichichloride:
violent reaction, greatly accelerated in the
Animal Toxicity Data:
LC50 inhalation-rat 49g/m3 4 hoursLC50 inhalation-mouse 400ppm/24 hoursLC50 inhalation-mammal 30g/m3LD50 skin-rabbit 12124mg/kgLD50 oral-rat 636mg/kgLD50 oral-mammal 4g/kgLD50 subcutaneous-mouse 2250mg/kgLD50 intravenous-rat 1960mg/kgLD50 intraperitoneal-guinea pig 500mg/kgLD50 intraperitoneal-rat 1332mg/kgLD50 intraperitoneal-mouse 59mg/kgReproductive effects have been reported in animals.
500mg/24 hours skin-rabbit moderate2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol was tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats by oraladministration in the diet. Mice showed an increased incidence pulmonary tumors in lowdose females. In rats an increased incidence of pituitary adenomas was observed infemale rats at the lower dose level.
Repeated application of toluene to rabbit skin produced slight to moderate irritation andslight necrosis. Topical application of 10mg/kg produced an increase in plasmic andlymphoid reticular cells in bone marrow of rats, while 1g/kg had no effect.
2,6,-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol is a limited animal carcinogen. A no observable effect level of25mg/kg has been determined in rats. Animal studies have reported hemorrhaging intothe pleural and peritoneal cavities, and hemorrhage of the epididymis, testes, naval cavityand pancreas, damage to the alveolar epithelium, and acute hepatic injury with necrosis.
Animal studies have reported decreases in growth rate and body weight, liver changes,hepatocellular and pituitary adenomas, benign and malignant liver tumours, alveolarepithelium damage, lung tumours, and haemorrhage or the retina. Offspring of rats givenbht have developed hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas.
The information published in this Material Safety Data Sheet has been compiled from data in various technicalpublications. It is the user’s responsibility to determine the suitability of this information for adoption of necessarysafety precautions. We reserve the right to revise material Safety Data Sheets as new information becomes available.
Copies may be made for non-profit use.
ECSTASY ÉS AGYKÁROSODÁS – VAN RÁ BIZONYÍTÉK?Az Amit az ecstasyról iskolásoknak, szülõknek, tanároknak, partizóknak tudni kell címû könyv recenziójaBánsági Éva, a nemrég megjelent Amit az ecstasyról iskolásoknak, szülõknek, taná-roknak, partizóknak tudni kell címû könyv (szerkesztette Bagdy György, Budapest, 2006, Akadémiai Kiadó.) bemutatójában (Ecstasy
A Pénzügyminisztérium és az Adó- és Pénzügyi Ellenőrzési Hivatal tájékoztatója a cégtelefonok magáncélú használatával összefüggő adókötelezettségről 1. Személyi jövedelemadó, járulékok, társasági adó A személyi jövedelemadóról szóló (Szja) törvény 69. §-a (1) bekezdésének mb) alpontja és (12) bekezdése szerint 2006. szeptember 1-jétől t