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Journal of Ethnobiology and 
Ethnopharmacology 

The Hypoglycemic and Hyopcholestrolemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Cannabis sativa in
Albino Rats
Esra M.M Ali, Sara.A.M.A, Salwa M.E.K, Samia.H.A and Abdelwahab A.H.M1
Central Veterinary Research Laboratories (CVRL), Animal Resources Research Corporation. P.O Box 8067 Alamarat Khartoum Sudan; 1Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute, National Centre for Research, P.O. Box 2404, Khartoum
A B S T R A C T

The present study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hyopcholestrolemic effects of Cannabis sativa in albino
rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by injecting 2g/kg BW of 50% glucose solution intra peritoneal to rats fasted for 18
hours. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of the aerial part of C. sativa at dose rates of 800 mg/kg BW was also
administered orally. The plasma glucose was determined after 0, 1, 2 and 4 hours following glucose loading. The
result revealed decrease in plasma glucose. This hypoglycemic effect of the extracts was mild when compared to that
of the standard hypoglycemic drug (Glibenclamide). The hyopcholestrolemic effect was not evident until the 4th hour
of the experiment, where it decreased significantly compared to the control.
Keywords: Hypoglycemic effects; Cannabis sativa; Glibenclmide; albino rats
Corresponding author: Esra M.M Ali, Central Veterinary Research Laboratories (CVRL), Animal Resources
Research Corporation. P.O Box 8067 Alamarat Khartoum Sudan.
INTRODUCTION
human. Seeds and leaves are fed to animals and seeds oil and stalks are burned for fuel. Whole plants, leaves and Diabetes mellitus is known to cause elevated blood wood have environmental uses (Clarke, 2002). The hemp level as well as increasing the mobilization of plant in many cultures and countries was used triglycerides with abnormal formation of ketone bodies. therapeutically for the treatment of chronic ear, nose and Accelerated ketone bodies formation can lead to acidosis, throat disorders, acute external otitis, laryngitis, coma and death in untreated type-1 diabetes as stated by pharyngitis, sinusitis, tonsilratslitis and trauma (Grigoriev, Stryer (1998). Also high plasma cholesterol level might 2002). Cannabis sativa and its Cannabinoids DELTA- 9- lead to atherosclerosis which is a consequent disease hydrocannabinol was used against bacterial, protozoal arises as a complication of diabetes mellitus (Murray et and viral infections, immunity, and cytokines syntheses, al., 1991). Statin drugs provides effective cholesterol- studied both in vitro and in vivo (Cabral, 2001). The aim lowering therapy and are widely prescribed (Stein, 2003) of this study was to find the hypoglycemic and but they are expensive and can cause side effects and even hyopcholestrolemic effects of Cannabis sativa in albmino In Sudan, Cannabis is known as bango and hashish. The name bango in Sudan may be derived from the Indian MATERIALS AND METHODS
name bhang. The fruit and flower tops of the female plant and their adjacent small leave have the highest Sample of Cannabis sativa was collected from concentration of Cannabinoids. Only the female plant of Southern Kordofan state and were authenticated in the Cannabis sativa L. has so far been thought to contain the Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute. The active ingredient Tetrahydrocannabinoal (THC) as whole plant was used in the experiment. 75 gm of the reported by Hanus and krejci (1981). plant was subjected to freeze drying till dryness. The Sixty six Cannbinoids have been isolated from powder residue was redissolved in the coarsely powdered cannabis plant. All classes derived from cannabigerol- whole plant of Cannabis sativa, soaked in 500 ml of type compounds differ mainly in the way this precursor is boiling distilled water and left for 2 hours at room cyclized. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol temperature and then filtered. Glibenclamide, an oral (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are the most prevalent hypoglycemic drug, belongs to the group sulphonylurea natural Cannabinoids and have received the much (second generation) was used. Wister albino rats of either attention (Bums and Ineck, 2006). sex were used. They were obtained from the National Parts of this plant are used in human medicine and Experimental Animal House (NEAH), in the Medicinal livestock disease. Whole seeds and seed oil are eaten by and Aromatic Plants Research Institute (MAPRI), J Ethnobiol Ethnopharmacol, 2012, 1(1): 10-12.
National Center for Research Ministry of Science and Table 2: The effect of aqueous extract of C. sativa on
cholesterol concentration of rats
Twenty healthy mixed sex Swiss Wister albino rats were deprived of feeds for 18 hours. They were divided 95.59±0.43a 95.55±0.32b 132.13±0.84a 284.53±0.25a into 4 groups, each of 5 rats and weighting 90-140 gm. All 94.59±0.10a 98.34±0.90b 81.05±0.01b 175.80±0.36b groups were immediately injected glucose (50%) at a dose 90.23±0.85a 110.14±0.96a 129.05±0.62a 185.35±0.67b 2g/kg intra peritoneum and subjected to glucose tolerance Means values bearing different superscript letter(s) within a row are significantly different (P≤0.05); A-CMeans values test. Animals were apparently healthy and they were bearing different superscript letter(s) within a column are identified by color tail marks. One week was allowed for a significantly different (P≤0.05); A = control group; B = Group preliminary adaptive period. Group A was given 10 ml/kg treated with Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg); C = Group treated C. normal saline and served as a negative control group. Group B was injected with 10 mg/kg BW Glibenclamide (hypoglycemic drug) and served as a positive control DISCUSSION
group. Rats in group C were drenched orally via a plastic gastric tube with 800/g/kg of freeze-dried aqueous extract The present study was conducted to determine the hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Cannabis Two ml of blood was withdrawn by capillary tubes in Sativa. In this study the dose of aqueous extract of fluorinated test tubes from the orbital plexus of rats under Cannabis sativa administered orally to rats showed inhalation anesthesia using halothane (Khana, 1993). lowering effects in the plasma glucose after forth hour. They were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes to This result agreed with that obtained by Reem (1993) who separate plasma. The prepared plasma was used to showed that 1 g/kg of the freeze-dried aqueous extracts of estimate the glucose and cholesterol. Glucose and both Guiera Senegalensis and Medicago sativa cholesterol were determined according to the method of administered orally caused a glucose lowering effects in the rats. The hypoglycemic effects of the C. sativa aqueous extract may be attributed to enhancement of Statistical analysis
insulin release or possibly due to increase in glucose The experimental data were analyzed by employing peripheral consumption. This assumption can be further the paired one way Anova analysis of variance (Snedecor confirmed by the effects of the extracts on peripheral glucose consumption as explained by Konuklugil et al. (1996). The hypocholestrolemic effect of C. sativa may be attributed to the content of the phytosterols in the plant In this experiment, the administration 0f 800mg/kg of (Fenstrom, 1999). As shown in the result the aqueous Cannabis sativa aqueous extract caused a lowering effect extract of Cannabis sativa showed decrease in the level of in the plasma glucose level of fasting rats compared to the cholesterol. The hypocholestrolemic effect of C.sativa control group. This lowering effect reaches its maximum may be attributed to the content of the phytosterols in the value (25%) after one hour. The fasting control group (B) plant, (Fenstrom, 1999). It was concluded that Cannabis that was given glibenclamid, exhibited a hypoglycemic sativa may possessed hypoglycemic and effects, and a decrease in the plasma glucose level of hyopcholestrolemic activity. Further research is need to 37%, 60.38%, 42.62% and 92.96% when monitored at 0,1 , 2 and 4 hours respectively. Group (A) which was given 10ml/kg of normal saline, showed increase in the plasma REFERENCES
glucose and cholesterol level except that at 4hour. The third group (C) that received the aqueous extract of Akerele O, 1988. Medicinal plants and primary health C.sativa showed an increase in glucose level within the care: an agenda for action. Fitoterpia, 59:355-363. first and two hours but after four hours, the plasma level Bums TI, and JR Ineck, 2006. Cannabinoids and analgesic of glucose was decreased when compared to the control as potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of groups, table (1). Oral administration of Cannabis sativa chronic pain. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 40 aqueous extract showed hypocholestrolaemia. The control group which was given 10ml/kg of normal saline, showed mild increase in the plasma cholesterol level, while the Cabral GA, 2001. Marijuana and Cannabinoids: effects group that was given the aqueous extract of C. sativa on infections, immunity, and ADIS. Journal of showed decrease in plasma cholesterol level after 2 and 4 Cannabis Therapeutics. 1: 3-4, 61- 85. hours. This result was shown in table (2). Clarke RC, 2002. Filed interview schedule and Table 1: The effect of aqueous extract of C. sativa on glucose
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