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4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
ANNEXURE-C
Scheme of Studies for 4-Year BS (Hons) Program and B.Sc 2 years
Colleges program

CURRICULUM FOR 4-Year BS (Hons) Program

The students who have passed F.Sc. /A-level examinations with chemistry shall be eligible for BS chemistry program. A student may choose chemistry as a major subject along with two other subjects out of different possible combinations as given below. These may be offered at the colleges / university campuses:
Note: Suggestions for Annual System
The institutions continuing with the existing annual examination system may have the provision that two semester courses e.g. of semesters I, II and III & IV, be merged to constitute the course for one academic year. Thus the students shall appear in five papers in the annual examination of each of the academic year of the BS Program. 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
SCHEME OF STUDIES
A student choosing a combination of major subjects, for example, chemistry - Physics - Mathematics shall have the following scheme of studies: 1st Year
Semester-I Credits
Semester-II Credits
Chemistry (Physical) 3+1*
Chemistry (Inorganic) 3+1*
2nd Year

Semester-III Credits

Semester-IV Credits

Chemistry (Organic)
3+1* Chemistry (Special Topics) 3+1*
Total Credits: 14+16+14+16 = 60
Note: At college or university level, a student may discontinue the studies at
this

stage to becomes eligible for a B.Sc. (Pass) degree. Those who continue their
studies (for BS program) shall read the following courses:


3rd Year

Semester-V Credits
Semester-VI Credits
Inorganic Chemistry 3+1* Inorganic Chemistry 3+1* Organic Chemistry 3+1 Organic Chemistry 3+1 Physical Chemistry 3+1 Physical Chemistry 3+1 Analytical/Environmental Applied/Bio-Chemistry 3+1 Chemistry 3+1 Mathematics for Chemists 2 * 3+1 means 3 theory lectures and 1 practical (3 hours) per week. 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Specialization
Semester-VII Credits Semester-VIII Credits
Paper-I 4 Paper-IV 4
Paper-II 4 Paper-V 4
Paper-III 4 Paper-VI 4
Practicals 4 Advanced Practicals/
Total 16 Cr Research 4
Total 16 Cr

Total: 128 Credit Hours
Students should be encouraged to complete 4-6 weeks of non-credit internship at
industries during the last year of BS program. A successful completion of the
internship shall be mentioned in the transcript.
DETAIL OF COURSES
BS: 1st Year
Semester-I
Physical Chemistry (3 + 1)
Physical States of Matter
Ideal and real gases, equations of state, critical phenomenon and critical constants.
Molecules in motion: collision diameter and mean free path. Physical properties of
liquids: surface tension, viscosity, refractive index etc. and their applications. Brief
account of interactions among the molecules in liquids. Packing of atoms. Unit cells
and crystal systems. Methods of crystal structure analysis. Brief account of
polymers and composite materials with special emphasis on superconductors,
semi-conductors etc. Introduction to plasma.
Chemical Thermodynamics
Laws of thermodynamics and their applications. Thermodynamic functions: internal
energy, enthalpy, entropy and free energy. Relations between thermodynamic
functions. van’t Hoff’s equation. Heat capacities, concept of entropy and probability.
Chemical Kinetics
Rate of reaction. Rate law, order and molecularity of the reactions. Zero, first and
second order reactions. Determination of reaction order and its rate constant. Effect
of temperature on the reaction rate. Concepts of chemical equilibrium. Law of mass
action, equilibrium constant, Le-Chatelier principle and its applications. Elementary
concepts underlying complex and fast reactions. Theories of elementary reactions:
collision theory, transition state theory.

Solution Chemistry

Ideal and non-ideal solutions. Raoult’s law and its applications. Molecular
interactions in solutions. Colligative properties. Distillation and concept of
azeotropic mixture. Phase rule and its applications.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May

Surface Chemistry
Concept of interfaces. Adsorption and adsorption isotherms: Freundlich and
Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Catalysis, colloids, emulsion and their industrial Physical Chemistry Practicals
Determination of viscosity and paraochor values of liquids. Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions viscometrically. Determination of refractive index and molar refractivity. Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions by refractive index Determination of molecular weight of a compound by elevation of boiling point Determination of molecular weight of a compound by lowering of freezing point Determination of heat of solution by solubility method. Determination of heat of neutralization of an acid with a base. Kinetic study of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. Determination of partition coefficient of a substance in two immiscible liquids. Books Recommended

Theory
1. Alberty, R. “Physical Chemistry” 17th Ed., John Wiley and Sons (1987).
2. Atkins P.W. “Physical Chemistry” 6th edition, W. H. Freeman and co. New
York (1998).
3. Laidler, K. J., “The World of Physical Chemistry” 1st Ed., Oxford University
Press, pp. 488 (1993).
4. Laidler, K.J., John H. M. and Bryan C. S., “Physical Chemistry” 4th Ed.,
Houghton Mifflin Publishing Company Inc. (2003 ).
5. Peter, P.A., “Chemical Thermodynamics”, Oxford University Press (1983).
6. Brain, S. E., “Basic Chemical Thermodynamics” 4th Ed., E. L. B. S. Publishers
(1990).
7. Barrow, M.G., “Physical Chemistry” 5th Ed., Mc Graw Hill (1992).
Practicals

1. Jaffar, M., “Experimental Physical Chemistry” University Grants
Commission (1989).
2. Levitt B.P., “Findlay's Practical Physical Chemistry”, 9th Ed., Longman Group
Limited.
3. Shoemaker, D., “Experiments in Physical Chemistry” 5th Ed., McGraw Hill
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Publishing Company
4. Limited (1989).
Semester-II

Inorganic Chemistry (3 + 1)
The Periodic Law and Periodicity
Development of periodic table; Classification of elements based on s, p, d, and f
orbitals, group trends and periodic properties in s, p, d and f block elements i.e.,
atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization potentials. Electron affinities,
electronegativities and redox potential.
Chemical Bonding in Main Block Elements
Nature and types of chemical bonding, Lewis concepts, ionic, covalent,
coordinate covalent bond; Valence Bond Theory (VBT), Molecular Orbital Theory
(MOT). Interpretation of shapes of inorganic molecules on the basis of valence
shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory and hybridization.
Acid and Bases
Concepts of acids and bases including soft and hard acid base concepts.
Relative strengths of acids and bases, significance of pH, pKa, pKb and buffers
solutions. Theories of indicators: (acid base, redox, adsorption). Solubility,
solubility product, common ion effect and their industrial applications
Chemistry of the p-block Elements
General characteristics of the following group of p-block elements with reference
to the aspects given against each:
Boron and Aluminum
Group anomalies: Boron and aluminium hydrides: Structures, properties and
industrial applications.
Carbon and Silicon
Group anomalies. Allotropic forms of carbon, fullerenes and their applications.
Production of pure silicon for solar energy and silicon chips, silicates and
silicones and industrial applications.
Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Group anomalies. Preparation, structures, properties and the environmental role
of oxides of nitrogen. Industrial preparation of nitric acid, urea and
superphosphate fertilizers. Causes of fog and smog.

Oxygen and Sulfur

Group anomalies. Preparation, structures, properties and environmental role of
oxides and oxyacids of sulphur, manufacturing of sulphuric acid and its
reactions. Thionic acids and use of 'hypo' in industry.
The Halogens
Anomalous behaviour of fluorine. Industrial preparation of chlorine. Preparation, 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
structures, properties and uses of oxides, oxyacids of chlorine, interhalogens and pseudohalogens. The Noble Gases
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of xenon fluorides; Commercial
Practicals
1. Laboratory Ethics and Safety Measures
Awareness about the toxic nature of chemicals and their handling, cleaning
of glassware, safe laboratory operations
2. Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of four ions (two cations and two anions) from mixture of salts.
3. Preparation and standardization of normal and molar solutions of

HCl, NaOH and KMnO4

4. Quantitative Analysis
Determination of total hardness of water using EDTA.
Estimation of magnesium using EDTA
Estimation of copper (iodometrically).
Determination of ferricyanide using KI solution
Determination of chloride by Volhard and Mohr methods.
Estimation of chloride/bromide ions using adsorption (fluorescein)
indicator.
Percentage determination of ferric ions in ferric alum using KMnO4
solution.
Determination of purity of commercial potassium oxalate using KMnO4
solution.
Estimation of ferrous /ferric ions using K2Cr2O7 solution.
Percentage determination of barium in barium nitrate by gravimetric method.
Gravimetric determination of nickel.


Recommended Books:

1. Badar-ud-Din and Ali S. M. “Inorganic Chemistry” Ferozsons Pvt. Ltd.
2. Cartmell E. and Fowles G. W. A. “Valency and Molecular Structure” Adlard
and Sons Limited .3rd Edition (1966)
3. Cotton, F. A., Wilkinson G., Murillo C.A. and Bockhmann, M. “Basic Inorganic 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Chemistry” John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2nd Edition (1987)
4. Douglas B., McDaniel D. and Alexander J. “Concepts and Models of
Inorganic
Chemistry” John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3rd Edition (1994)
5. Harvey K. B. and Porter G. B. “Introduction to Inorganic Physical Chemistry”
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. (1963)
6. Hill J. W. and Petrucci R. H. “General Chemistry” Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1996)
7. Huheey J. E. “Inorganic Chemistry Principles of Structure and Reactivity”
Harper and Row Publishers 2nd Edition (1978)
8. Huheey J. E. “Inorganic Chemistry Principles of Structure and Reactivity”
Harper and Row Publishers. SI Unit Edition (1975)
9. Lee J. D. “Concise Inorganic Chemistry” Chapman and Hall. 5th Edition
(1996)
10. Marr G. and Rockett B. W. “Practical Inorganic Chemistry” Van Nostrand
Reinhold Company. (1972)
11. Miessler G. L. and Tarr Donald A. “Inorganic Chemistry” Prentice-Hall
International, Inc. Prentice-Hall International Edition (1991)
12. Moody B. “Comparative Inorganic Chemistry” Routledge, Chapman and Hall,
Inc. 3rd Edition (1991)
13. Shriver, D.F., Atkins P.W. and Langford C. H. “Inorganic Chemistry” Oxford
University Press 2nd Edition (1994)
Practicals
Baig M. M. “Inorganic Chemical Analysis” Kifayat Academy (1974) Bassette J., Denney C., Jeffery G. H. and Mendham J. “‘Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis Including Elementary Instrumental Analysis” English Language Book Society. 4th Edition (1978) Harris W. E., Kratochvil B. “An Introduction to Chemical Analysis” Saunders College Publishing. Holt-Saunders International Edition (1981) Vogel, A.I. “A Text Book of Micro and Semimicro Qualitative Inorganic Analysis” Longman Green & Co. (1995) BS: 2nd Year
Semester-III
Organic Chemistry (3+1)
Basic Concepts in Chemical Bonding
Localized and delocalized bonding; concept of hybridization leading to bond
angles, bond energies and geometry of simple organic molecules; dipole
moment; inductive effect; resonance, resonance energy, rules of resonance,
resonance effect, steric inhibition of resonance; hyperconjugation; tautomerism;
hydrogen bonding.
Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
Common and trivial names of organic compounds; an introduction to the
systematic nomenclature of mono- and bi-functional organic compounds by
IUPAC rules.
Hydrocarbons
Open Chain: Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes, alkenes and
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
alkynes.
Closed Chain: Synthesis, reactions and relative stability of small and
medium

sized cycloalkanes.
Aromatic Compounds: Structure of benzene, aromaticity, electrophilic
substitution including orientation and reactivity, addition and oxidation reactions,
preparation and reactivity of naphthalene.
Isomerism
Geometrical isomerism: Determination of configuration of geometrical
isomers,

Z, E convention and cis- and trans- isomerism in compounds containing two
double bonds;
Optical isomerism: Optical activity, chirality and optical activity,
racemisation

and resolution of racemic mixtures, R, S notation, diasteroisomers.
Conformational isomerism: A brief introduction to conformation of ethane,
n-

butane and cyclohexane.
Alkyl Halides
Preparation and reactions of alkyl halides with special reference to nucleophilic
substitution and eliminations reactions, factors effecting nucleophilic substitution
and elimination reactions. Grignard’s reagent: Preparation, structure and
applications in the synthesis of alcohols and carboxylic acids.
Chemistry of the Hydroxyl Group and Ethers
Brief review of the physical properties, preparation and reactions of alcohols.
Phenols: Acidity, preparation and reactions, Ethers: Preparation, properties and
reactions.
Chemistry of Carbonyl Compounds
Structure and reactivity of the carbonyl group; preparation and reactions of
aldehydes and ketones.
Chemistry of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
Physical properties of carboxylic acids, effect of substitution and structure on the
strengths of acidity of carboxylic acids. Preparation, properties and reactions of
carboxylic acids and their derivatives i.e. esters, amides, acid halides and acid
anhydrides.
Chemistry of Amino Group
The structure of aliphatic and aromatic primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Physical and chemical properties of amines, basicity and nucleophilicity of
amines. Synthesis and reactions of amines. Diazonium salts: Preparation and
their synthetic applications.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Practicals
Sixteen experiments shall be conducted based on the following:
a. Techniques
Melting and boiling point determination
Distillation, solvent extraction, crystallization,
b. Qualitative Organic Analysis
Systematic identification of organic compounds (10 Compounds)
c. Preparation of Organic Compounds
Preparation of simple organic compounds like iodoform, aspirin,
acetanilide
etc (10 Preparation)
Recommended Books
Theory
1. Bansal.R.K, “A Text book of Organic Chemistry” Wiley Eastern Ltd; Second
Edition (1990).
2. Carrey.F.A, “Organic Chemistry” The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc; Fourth
Edition (2000).
3. Finar.I.L, “Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry”Longman, Third Edition, Vol.1 (1959). 4. March.J, “Advanced Organic Chemistry Reactions, Mechanisms and Structure” John Wiley & Sons (latest edition available). 5. McMurry.J, “Organic Chemistry” Thomson Asia Ltd; Singapore, Fifth Edition 6. Morrison.R.T, Boyd.R.N; “Organic Chemistry”Prentice-Hall, Inc; Sixth Edition 7. Pine.S.H, Hendrickson.J.B Hammond.G.S, “Organic Chemistry”McGraw-Hill, Practicals
Furniss.B.S, Hannaford.A.J,Rogers.V,Smith.P.W.G,Tatchell.A.R, “Vogel’s Text book of PracticalOrganic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis” Longman Group Ltd;Fourth Edition(1986). I.Gosney.J.T.S, Rowley.A.G, “Practical Organic Chemistry” Chapman and Mann.F.G, Saunders.B.C, “Practical Organic Chemistry” Lowe and Brydone (Printers) Ltd; Thetford, Norfolk (1975). Shriner.R.L, Fuson.R.C, Curtin.D.Y and Morrill.T.C, “The Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds (a laboratory manual)”John Wiley & Sons, Inc; Sixth Edition (1980). Vogel, A., I., “Practical Organic Chemistry”, Longman Green & Co, (1995). Semester-IV
Chemistry (Special Topics) (3+1)
Electrochemistry
Ions in solution. Measurement of conductance and Kohlrausch’s law. Debye-
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Hückel theory and activity coefficient. Application of conductance measurement. Electrode potential. Electrochemical cell. Application of electrode potential. Quantum Theory
Limitations of classical mechanics, Wave and particle nature of matter, de
Broglie equation, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Schrödinger wave equation
and its solution for particle in 1-dimensional and 3-dimensional boxes. Concept
of quantization of energy and an introduction to spectroscopy: spectra of
hydrogen and hydrogen-like atoms.
Chemistry of d-block Elements
Electronic configuration. General characteristics of d-block elements. Werner’s concepts of co-ordination compounds; nomenclature. nature of coordinate covalent bond. Valence Bond, Molecular Orbital and Crystal Field theories to explain the structures of polymers coordination compounds. Introduction to chelates. Industrial applications of transition metals. Introduction to Nuclear Chemistry
Natural and artificial radioactivity; Nuclear reactions, fission and fusion. Uses of
radioisotopes in various fields. Nuclear hazards and safety measures.
Chromatography
Classification and introduction to paper, column and thin layer chromatography.
Heterocyclic Compounds
Nomenclature of simple heterocyclic structures containing oxygen, nitrogen and
sulfur in five and six membered rings. The chemistry of furan, pyrrole, pyridine
and thiophene and their aromatic character.
An Introduction to Spectroscopy
Spectroscopic Methods: Infrared & ultraviolet spectroscopy, structure elucidation
of different organic compounds by spectroscopic techniques
Biomolecules
A brief introduction to the chemical nature of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and their importance in living systems Practicals
More experiments should be included according to the facilities available to the
teaching institution.
Eight experiments in chromatography (TLC, column and paper) using cations,
mixture of inks and organic compounds.
Determination of dipole moment of organic compounds.
Determination of specific and molar conductivities of strong and weak
electrolytes
Recommended Books
1. Banwell, C.N., “Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy”, 1978.
2. Berry, R. S., Stuart A. R., and Ross J., “Physical Chemistry”2nd Ed. Oxford
3. Cotton, F. Albert, Geoffrey Wilkinson and Paul L.Gaus, “Advanced Inorganic Chemistry”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3rd Edition (1995). 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
4. Ernest, H. and Lyons, Jr., “Introduction to Electrochemistry” D. C. Heath and 5. Finar, I.L., “Organic Chemistry” Vol-II, Longman Group Limited, London. 6. Kennedy, Friedlander, “Nuclear and Radiochemistry” (latest edition). 7. Mortimer, G. R., “Physical Chemistry” 2nd Ed., Academic Press (2000) 8. Rastogi R.P., Srivastava V. K., “An Introduction to Quantum Mechanics of Chemical Systems”,, Mohan Primlani for Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Dehli India (1986). 9. Silverstein, R. M., G.C. Basseler and T.C. Morill “Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds” John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York. 10. Skoog A., Donald, M., “Analytical Chemistry” Saunder Publishers, London 11. Steitweisser, A., Heathcock, C., “Introduction to Organic Chemistry”, Maxwell McMillan International New York. 12. W.L. Jolly “The Principles of Inorganic Chemistry”. McGraw-Hill Inc. pp376 ( 13. Warren, S. W., “The Physical Basis of Chemistry” 2nd Ed., Elsevier- 14. Griffiths, D. J., “Introduction to Quantum Mechanics” 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall 15. Chandra, A.K., “Introductory Quantum Chemistry” Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi, 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Semester-V Credits
Inorganic Chemistry 3+1* Organic Chemistry 3+1 Physical Chemistry 3+1 Analytical/Environmental Chemistry 3+1 Mathematics for Chemists 2 * 3+1 means 3 theory lectures and 1 practical (3 hours) per week Inorganic Chemistry
Principles of Chemical Bonding
Types of chemical bonding. The localized bond approach: V.B. theory,
hybridization and resonance, The delocalized approach to bonding, molecular
orbital theory (MOT) as applied to diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Band
theory of metallic bonding (conductors, insulators and semiconductors).
Bonding in electron deficient compounds. Hydrogen bonding.
Chemistry of Coordination Compounds
Introduction to d-block elements, nomenclature, Werner’s theory, valence
bond theory, molecular orbital theory, crystal field and ligand-field theory.
Jahn-Teller theorem; magnetic properties, The spectrochemical series and
color of metal complexes, Isomerism and stereochemistry, geometry of
complexes having coordination number 2 to 9. Techniques for studying
complexes, stability constant, applications of coordination compounds.
p Acceptor Ligands
Mononuclear and polynuclear metal carbonyls, The eighteen electrons as applied to metal carbonyls, rationalization of molecular structure, evaluation of structure based on spectroscopic evidence, Chemistry of metal carbonyls and their derivatives (nitosyls, halides and hydrides) Practicals
Semi-micro analysis and paper chromatographic techniques for
confirmation of anions.
Preparation of at least four Inorganic compounds in pure state.
Ni (II) Ca (II) and Mg (II) in mixture. Mg (II), Mn (II) and Zn (II) in a mixture. 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Recommended Books
1. Atkins, P., Jones, L. “Chemical Principles” Freeman and Company (2002)
2. Basolo F., and Johnson R. C. “Coordination Chemistry: The Chemistry of
Metal Complexes” W. A. Benjamin, Inc. (1964) 3. Brady, J.E., Holum, J.R. “Chemistry-The Study of Matter and Its
Changes” John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (1996)
4. Cartmell E. and Fowles G. W. A. “Valency and Molecular Structure”. 3rd
Ed. Adlard and Sons Limited. (1966).
5. Douglas B., McDaniel D. and Alexander J. “Concepts and Models of
Inorganic Chemistry” John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3rd Edition (1994)
6. Ebbing, D.D., “General Chemistry” Houghton Mifflin Company (1996)
7. Kettle S. F. A. “Coordination Compounds” Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd.
(1969)
8. Larsen E. M. “Transitional Elements”. W. A. Benjamin, Inc. (1995)
9. Miessler G. L. and Tarr Donald A. “Inorganic Chemistry” Prentice-Hall
International, Inc. Prentice-Hall International Ed (1991)
10. Mortimer C. E. “Chemistry: A Conceptual Approach” D. Van Nostrand
Company. 3rd Edition (1975)
11. Purcell, K.F., Kortz, J.C., “An Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry”
Saunders College Publishing (1980)
12. Shriver D. F., Atkins P. W. and Langford C. H. “Inorganic Chemistry”.
Oxford University Press. (1994).
13. Sultana N. and Arayne M. S. “A Text Book of Coordination Chemistry:” B. C.
C. & T Press, University of Karachi. (1996)
Practicals:
Bassette J., Denney C., Jeffery G. H. and Mendham J. “‘Vogel’s Textbook
of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis Including Elementary Instrumental
Analysis” English Language Book Society. 4th Edition (1978)
Fritz J. S., Schenk G. H. “Quantitative Analytical Chemistry” Allyn and
Bacon, Inc. 4th Edition (1979).
Marr G., Rockett B. W. “Practical Inorganic Chemistry”. Van Nostrand
Reinhold Company. (1972)
Pass G. and Sutcliffe H. “Practical Inorganic Chemistry: Preparations,
Reactions and Instrumental Methods” Chapman and Hall. 2nd Edition
(1974)
Organic Chemistry
Acids and Bases
Concepts of acids and bases; scale of acidity and basicity; pKa values; predicting
acid/base reactions from pKa values; the effect of structure on the strengths of
acids and bases, field effects, resonance effects, steric effects, hydrogen
bonding effects and hybridization effects; the effect of the medium on the
strengths of acids and bases; the Hammett and Taft’s equations- applications
and limitations.
Stereochemistry
Introduction; Optical isomerism: optical activity, chirality, symmetry elements and
optical inactivity, relative and absolute configuration, R, S notation, methods of
determining configuration, racemic mixtures and their resolution, asymmetric
synthesis, optical activity in biphenyls, allenes and spiro compounds,
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
stereospecific and stereoselective reactions; Geometrical isomerism: Determination of configuration of geometrical isomers, Z, E convention cis- and trans- isomerism in cyclic systems; Conformational isomerism: Conformational analysis of monosubstituted cyclohexanes, disubstituted cyclohexanes and decalin systems. Spectroscopy
Introduction to UV, IR, 1H-NMR and Mass Spectrometry; structure elucidation of different organic compounds by these techniques Practicals
Purification Techniques: Fractional distillation, fractional distillation under reduced pressure and fractional crystallization Mixture Analysis: Analysis of two component mixtures. Books Recommended
(Latest available editions of the following books are recommended) 1. Finar,I.L; “Organic Chemistry”, Vol-II,Longman Group Limited, London. 2. Fleming,I; “Frontier Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions”, John Wiley & Sons,New York. 3. Kemp,W; “Organic Spectroscopy”, Macmillan Publishers Ltd.London. 4. Klaus,peter,and Zeller, “NMR and Mass Spectroscopy for Organic Chemist,Vol.2,University Grants Commission ,Islamabad. 5. March,J; “Advanced Organic Chemistry”,John Wiley & Sons,New York. 6. Morrison,R.T. and R.N.Boyd, “Organic Chemistry”,Allyn & Bacon Inc. 7. Pine,S.H; “Organic Chemistry”, McGraw Hill,Inc;New York. 8. Silverstein,R.M,G.C.Bassler and T.C.Morrill, “Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds”,John Wiley & Sons,Inc.New York. 9. Solomon, T.W.G; “Organic Chemistry”, John Wiley & Sons,New York. 0. Steitwieser, A.C. Heathcockand E.M. Kosower, “Introduction to Organic Chemistry” ,Maxwell Macmillan International,New York. 11. Younas, M, “Organic Spectroscopy”, A. H. Publisher, Lahore. Physical Chemistry
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Virial equations. Maxwell’s law of molecular velocities. Calculation of molecular
velocities and binary collisions. Maxwell-Boltzmann’s law of energy distribution.
Chemical Thermodynamics
Relation of entropy and energy with equilibrium constant and their dependence
on temperature. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Chemical potential. Partial molar
quantities.
Chemical Kinetics
Integrated rate laws: second and third order reactions with same and different initial concentrations of reactants. Elementary and complex reactions: opposing, parallel and consecutive reactions. Steady state approximation, Lindemann theory of unimolecular reactions. chain reactions, kinetics of thermal and photochemical reactions 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Practicals
Equilibrium constant of the KI + I2 = KI3 reaction
Kinetics of saponification of ethyl acetate
Acid catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose
Study of the adsorption isotherms of acetic acid-charcoal system
Study of the charge transfer complex formation between iodine and benzene
Determination of activation energy for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl
acetate Determination of partial molar volumes
Books Recommended
1. Alberty, R. A., Robert J. S. and Moungi G. B. “Physical Chemistry”. 4th
Edition , John Wiley and Sons, 960 pp (2004).
2. Ball, D.W., “Physical Chemistry” 1st Ed., Brooks/Cole Co. Inc., pp. 880 (2003).
3. Engel, Thomas and .Reid P., “Thermodynamics, Statistical Thermodynamics,
and Kinetics” 1st Ed., Benjamin Cummings, 2006 .
4. James K. and Wothers, P., “Why Chemical Reactions Happen”. Oxford
University Press, (2003).
5. Smith, E. Brian, “Basic Chemical Thermodynamics” 5th Edition. Imperial
College Press,. (2004).
6. Stephen B. R., Rice S. A., and Ross J., “Physical Chemistry” 2nd Ed.,
7. Jurg, W., “Basic Chemical Thermodynamics” W. A. Benjamin (1969). 8. Chorkendorff, I. and Niemantsverdriet, J. W. “Concepts of Modern Catalysis and Kinetics”1st Edition John Wiley and Sons (2003). 9. Espenson, J. H. “Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism” 2nd Edition McGraw Hill (2002) . 10. Berry, R. S., Stuart A. R., and John Ross “Physical and Chemical Kinetics” 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press (2000)

Practical:

Halpern, Arthur M., “ Experimental Physical Chemistry: A Laboratory
Textbook” 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall. pp 610 (1997)
Bassette J., Denney C., Jeffery G. H. and Mendham J. “‘Vogel’s Textbook of
Quantitative Inorganic Analysis Including Elementary Instrumental Analysis”
English Language Book Society. 4th Edition (1978)
Daniel, F., “Experimental Physical Chemistry” Mc Graw Hill (1962).
Shoemaker, D., “Experimental Physical Chemistry” Mc Graw Hill (1989).
Analytical Chemistry
Chemical Analysis and Data Handling
Accuracy of analytical processes such as sampling, weighing, volume
measurements, precipitation, washing, filtration and ignition
Recent developments in the sampling techniques, Statistical analysis; random
and systematic errors, rounding off the data, arithmetic mean, median, mode,
standard deviation, relative standard deviation, Student t-test, F-test etc., quality
control and quality assurance Constructing and interpreting quality control plots.
The use of computers in data handling
Ionic Equilibria in Solutions
Activity and activity coefficients, Hydrogen ion activity and pH for weak acids and bases, Determination of pKa and pKb value, common ion effect and its industrial applications. Buffer its composition and mechanism and buffer capacity. Stability and formation constants of complexes, methods for their determination 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Separation Techniques
Solvent extraction: Principle, factors affecting the extraction systems,
Distribution law, Coefficient and ratio, multiple batch extraction, Practical
applications in chemical analysis.
Chromatographic methods: General theory of chromatography,
classification
of chromatographic methods, column, paper, thin-layer, and ion-exchange
chromatography and their applications.
Practicals
Use of double pan balance, long swing and short swing methods by use of
riders
Calibration of weights.
Conductometric determination of solubility product of AgCl / PbSO4.
Effect of common ions on solubility of sparingly soluble salts (AgCl /PbSO4).
Verification of Beer Lambert law by using KMnO4 solution.
Determination of max of KMnO4 and K2Cr2O7 solutions.
Construction of voltaic cell and electrochemical cells.
Electrogravimetric determination of copper in given samples.
Books Recommended:
1. Blackburn, Thomas, R., “Equilibrium- A Chemistry of Solutions”, Holt,
Rinehart and
2. Winston, Inc., 1969.
3. Christian, G.D., “Analytical Chemistry” 6th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New
York, 2003.
4. Harris D.C., “Quantitative Chemical Analysis” 4th Ed., Freeman (1995).
5. Miller J.C., and Miller J.N., “Statistics for Analytical Chemists”
6. Skoog D.A., West D.D., and Holler F.J., “Fundamentals of Analytical
Chemistry” 6th Ed., Saunders College Publishing, 1992.
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental degradation. Impact of modern life-style on environmental quality;
resource depletion; poverty and environment degradation; environmental
education. Nature and composition of atmosphere; temperature and pressure
profiles. Environmental aspects related to chemistry, classification of
environmental pollutants. Major sources of pollutants including industry and
vehicular emissions. Introduction to air-pollution, water-pollution, soil-pollution
and food-pollution. Basics of green house effect and global warming. Impacts of
chemical pollutants on biological systems in the lithosphere and hydrosphere.
Role of chemistry in abatement of environmental pollution. Heavy metals and
inorganic anions as pollutants. Oxides of non-metals (C, N, and S). Significance
of oxygen level in water bodies. Biodiversity in aquatic systems.

Practicals:
Determination of dissolved oxygen in water sample. Determination of lead in soil sample. Estimation of lead, zinc and tin in canned food. Collection of air samples from various industries. Collection and analyze of industrial effects. Determination of chromium in leather samples. 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Estimation of particulate matter from collected air samples. Estimation of volatile formaldehyde from press wood samples. - , CN-) in water samples. Detection and determination of toxic anions (S2-, NO2) Recycling of polystyrene samples. Recommended Books
( Latest available editions of the following books)
1. A. Kumar, Environmental Chemistry, Wiley Eastern, New Delhi.
2. Baird, C. Environmental Chemistry, Freeman, New York.
3. J. W. Moore & E.M. Moore, Environmental Chemistry, Academic Press,
New York.
4. Neil, P.O. Environmental Chemistry, Chapmann, London.
5. Pakistan Environmental Pollution Act 1997.
6. S. K. Banerji, Environmental Chemistry, Prentice Hall, Delhi.
7. S. K. Banerji, Environmental Chemistry, Tata Publisher, Delhi.
8. Staneley E. Manahan, Environmental Chemistry, Brooks, California.
Mathematics for Chemists
Review of basic algebra, trigonometry and graphical methods; differentiation,
simple and multiple variable problem, concept of maxima and minima; integration
and partial differentiation, differential equations (linear, homogenous and exact);
determinants, matrices and vectors-their use in chemical problems; coordinate
systems: Cartesian and polar coordinates and their transformation. Probability
and errors. Data handling variable correlations; t-test linear regression and line
fitting. Solution of linear and quadratic equations. Binomial theorem.
Recommended Books:
1. Scott, S., “Beginning Mathematics for Chemistry”. Oxford University press
New York (1995).
2. Stephen, K. S., “Beginning Mathematics for Chemistry” Oxford University
Press (2005).
BS 3rd Year
Semester-VI Credits
Inorganic Chemistry 3+1
Organic Chemistry 3+1
Physical Chemistry 3+1
Applied/Bio-Chemistry 3+1
Computer Applications in Chemistry 2____
Total 18 Cr
Inorganic Chemistry
The Lanthanide Series
Electronic structure and position in the periodic table, Lanthanide’s contraction, oxidation states, Spectral and magnetic properties, occurrence and preparations, complexes and uses. 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
The Actinide Series
Electronic structure and position in periodic table, Oxidation states, Occurrence
and preparation with reference to Uranium complexes, uses of actinides
Non-aqueous Solvents
Introduction, Classification of solvents, Types of reactions in solvents, Effect of
physical and chemical properties of solvents, Study of reactions in liquid NH3,
SO2 HF, H2SO4 and BrF3. Reactions in molten salts systems.
Practicals
Semi micro analysis and paper chromatographic confirmation of cations containing interfering anions Redox titration: Cu(II) by potassium iodate, Fe(II) by ceric sulfate. Estimation of at least two halides by adsorption indicator. Gravimetric estimation of barium and oxalate ions. Books Recommended
Theory
1. Huheey J. E. “Inorganic Chemistry Principles of Structure and Reactivity”2nd
Ed. Harper and Row Publishers. 1978
2. Lee J. D. “Concise Inorganic Chemistry” 5th Ed. Chapman and Hall. 1996
3. Mackay K. M., Mackay R. A. and Henderson W. “Introduction to Modern
Inorganic Chemistry”. 5th Ed. Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd. (1996)
4. Miessler G. L. and Tarr Donald A. “Inorganic Chemistry”. Prentice-Hall
International Ed. Prentice-Hall International, Inc. (1991)
Practical
Bassette J., Denney C., Jeffery G. H. and Mendham J. “‘Vogel’s Textbook of
Quantitative Inorganic Analysis Including Elementary Instrumental Analysis”
English Language Book Society. 4th Edition (1978)
Fritz J. S., Schenk G. H. “Quantitative Analytical Chemistry” Allyn and Bacon,
Inc. 4th Edition (1979)
Harris W. E., Kratochvil B. “An Introduction to Chemical Analysis” Saunders
College Publishing. Holt-Saunders International Edition (1981)
Organic Chemistry
Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions
Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions: Mechanisms and study of
SN1,

SN2, SN1’, SN2’, mechanisms; Neighbouring group participation: Intramolecular
displacement by neighbouring oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and halogen; The
effects of the substrate structure, entering group, leaving group and reaction
medium on the mechanisms and rates of substitution reactions.
Elimination Reactions: Mechanisms-Study of E1, E1cB and E2
mechanisms;
Orientation: Saytzeff and Hofmann Rules; The effects of the substrate structure,
attacking base, leaving group and the reaction medium on the rates and
mechanisms of elimination reactions; competition between elimination and
substitution reactions.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Aromatic Substitution Reactions
Electrophilic Substitution: Aromaticity; mechanisms of substitution;
orientation
and reactivity; electrophilic substitution reactions, i.e. nitration, halogenation,
sulfonation, Friedel-Crafts reactions, diazo-coupling, formylation and
carboxylation.
Nucleophilic Substitution: Mechanisms-Study of SNAr, SN1 and benzyne
mechanisms; The effects of substrate structure, leaving group and the attacking
nucleophile on the rates of substitution reactions.
Named Organic Reactions
Cannizzaro reaction, Perkin reaction, Michael reaction, Claisen-Schmidt reaction, Darzens Glycidic Ester reaction, Stobbe reaction, Mannich reaction, Wittig reaction, Ene reaction and Reformatsky reaction, Diels-Alder reaction. Practicals
Organic Synthesis: At least four experiments involving two step Synthesis
Estimation of Amide and Carboxyl groups, Phenol and other functional
groups.
Determination of Saponification value and acid value in oil
Recommended Books:
1. Carey. F.A, Sundberg. R.J, “Advanced Organic Chemistry (Part B: Reactions and Synthesis)”, Plenum Press, New York, Third Edition (1990). 2. Carpenter. B.K, “Determination of Organic Reaction Mechanisms, “John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1984). 3. Chatwal. G.R, “Reaction Mechanism and Reagents in Organic Chemistry”, Himalaya Publishing House (1987). 4. Fieser.L.F, Williamson.K.L, “Organic Experiments”, D.C.Heath and Company (1975). 5. Fuhrhop.J, Penzlin.G, “Organic Synthesis Concepts, Methods, Starting Materials”, Weinheim (1983). 6. Gould.E.S, “Mechanism and Structure of Organic Chemistry”, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc (1959). 7. Harris.J.M, Wamser.C.C, “Fundamental of Organic Reaction Mechanisms, “John Wiley & Sons, Inc (1976). 8. Knipe.A.C, Watts.W.E, “Organic Reaction Mechanisms”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1980). 9. Lowry.T.H, Richardson.K.S, “Mechanism and theory in Organic Chemistry”, Harper and Row (1976). 10. Mackie.R.K, Smith.D.M, “Guide book to Organic Synthesis”, Longman Group Ltd. (1982). 11. March.J, “Advanced Organic Chemistry Reactions, Mechanisms and Structure”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc; Fourth Edition (1992). 12. Streitwieser.A, Heath Cock.C.H, “Introduction to Organic Chemistry”, Macmillan Publishing Company, Third Edition (1989). 13. Sykes.P, “A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry”, Longman Group Ltd. (1986). 14. Vogel.A.I, “Elementary Practical Organic Chemistry Part III: Quantitative Organic Analysis”, Longman Group Ltd (1958). 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Physical Chemistry
Electrochemistry
Theory of metallic conduction, electrode potential, electrochemical cell,
electrolysis and related issues, liquid junction potential electron transfer
reactions, rate of charge transfer reaction and Butler-Volmer equation. Latimer
Diagram, Frost Diagram, cell Potential and thermodynamics, and Nernst
Equation. Voltammetry, fuel cells. Corrosion and its prevention. Ion in aqueous
solution, ionic activity and Debye Hückel Theory.
Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy
Simple harmonic oscillator. Rigid rotor, Hydrogen atom. Quantum numbers,
rotational, vibrational and rotational-vibrational spectra of diatomic and
polyatomic molecules.
Group Theory
Symmetry operations. properties of groups, matrices, transformation of matrices,
character tables.
Practicals
Determination of molecular weight of a polymer by viscosity method
Precipitation value of electrolytes
Measurement of IR spectra of simple compound and their interpretation
Measurement of cyclic voltammogram of an organic compound and its
interpretation
Determination of dipole moment of an organic liquid
Determination of percentage composition of KMnO4 / K2Cr2O7 in a given
solution by spectrophotometry.
Stoichiometry of a complex in solution by Job’s method
Evaluation of pKa value of an indicator by spectrometric method
Recommended Books
Theory
1. Cotton, F. Albert “Chemical Applications of Groups Theory”, Interscience
Publishers (1963).
2. G. W. King, “Spectroscopy and Molecular Structure”, Rinehart and Winston
(1964)
3. J. Albery, “Electrode Kinetics”, Clarendon, Oxford, 1975
4. Bockris J. OM. and Reddy A.K.N.,,” Modern Electrochemistry” Vol. I and 2,
Plenum Press, New York, (1970).
5. Micheal, D. F., “Elements of Quantum Mechanics” Oxford University Press
(2005).
6. Lowell, Hall H., “Group Theory and Symmetry in Chemistry” McGraw Hill
Book Company (1969).
7. Whiffen, D. H. “Spectroscopy” Longmans Green and Co.: London, (1966).
8. Bockris,J., “ Modern Electrochemistry”, Rosseta Publishing Co., Vol: 1,2
(1970).
9. Barrow, G., “ Molcular Spectroscopy” McGraw Hill (1962)


4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Practical:
Bassette J., Denney C., Jeffery G. H. and Mendham J. “‘Vogel’s Textbook of
Quantitative Inorganic Analysis Including Elementary Instrumental Analysis”
English Language Book Society. 4th Edition (1978)
Hatch R. C. “Experimental Chemistry” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company
(1972) .
Halpern, Arthur M., “Experimental Physical Chemistry: A Laboratory
Textbook” 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall. pp 610 (1997)
Daniel, F., “Experimental Physical Chemistry” Mc Graw Hill (1962).
Shoemaker, D., “Experimental Physical Chemistry” Mc Graw Hill (1989).
BIOCHEMISTRY
Introduction to Biochemistry
Brief introduction to the scope and history of biochemistry. The molecular logic of
living organism. Cell structure and their functions. Origin and nature of
biomolecules.
Physical aspects of Biochemistry
Weak interaction in aqueous system. Ionization of water. Weak acids and weak
bases. Buffers. Buffering against ph changes. Diffusion, osmosis and osmotic
pressure.
Proteins
Amino acids, classification and properties. Proteins, classification and properties.
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Amino acid
sequence. Biological functions of proteins and peptides
Lipids
Classification, fatty acids and their properties. Biological significance of
glycerides, phospholipids, non phospholipids and steroids. Structure of biological
membrane.
Carbohydrates
Classification of carbohydrates, chemistry and properties of monosaccharide,
disaccharides and polysaccharides. Glycolipids and glycoproteins.
Digestion and Absorption Utilization
Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Purines and pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides. Structures and functions
of RNA and DNA.
Enzymes
Chemical nature, nomenclature and classification. Enzyme activity. Effect of
different factors on enzyme activity. Coenzymes and immobilized enzymes.
Vitamins
Introduction, classification, chemistry and biological significances of vitamins A,
D, E, K, B, complex and C.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Practicals
Hydrolysis of protein
Qualitative tests for amino acids/paper chromatography
Estimation of protein by Kjeldahl, Lowery methods
Titration curve of amino acids
Qualitative tests for carbohydrates (pentoses, hexsoses, reducing and non
reducing sugar)
Estimation of glucose, Sucrose (polarimeter)
Enzymatic Hydrolysis of glycogen
Qualitative tests for fats, sterols and phospholipids
Saponification and iodine values of fat
Isolation and assay of enzymes, effects of various physical and chemical
factors on enzyme activity e.g. ALP, LDH
Enzyme inhibition, enzymes kinetics, enzyme immobilization, identification of
enzymes using zymogen techniques.
Recommended Books:
1. Lehninger, A. L., “Principles of Biochemistry” Worth Publisher, New York
(2001)
2. Murray, R. K., P. A. Mayes, D. K. Granner and V. W. Rodwell, “Harper’s .
Biochemistry”,
3. Appleton and Lange(2000).
4. Robert, “Harper’s Biochemistry”, 25th Edition. (2000)
5. Stryer, L. “Biochemistry”, Freeman & Co.( 1994)
6. Voet, D. and Voet J.G. “Biochemistry” John Wiley & Sons, New York (2000)
7. West, “Text Book of Biochemistry” 4th Edition. (2000)
8. Zubay, G. “Biochemistry”, 4th Edition Macmillan Publishing Co.(1999)
Applied Chemistry
Common Industrial Unit Operations
Elementary treatment of general unit operations commonly used in industries
such as size reduction, screening, enrichment, filteration, distillation and
crystallization Chemical unit processes like nitration , halogenation, sulfonation,
oxidation and hydrolysis with appropriate technical examples.
Basic Chemical Industries
Raw materials, chemical processes involved: flow sheet diagrams with all the
important parameters concerning the manufacture of sulfuric acid, hydrochloric
acid, caustic soda, washing soda, phthalic anhydride.
Cement Industry
Raw materials used for cement manufacturing used, dry process, wet process,
chemistry involved in hydration of cement, setting of cement, setting time.
Glass Industry
Raw materials used for glass, methods of manufacturing, method of
manufacturing glass. Special types of glass and their properties.
Soap Industry
Processes involved in soap manufacturing, methods used for manufacturing
laundry detergents. Recovery of glycerin. Detergent or surface active agents,
cationic anionic and non-ionic agents.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May

Water Softening and Scale Removing
Water hardness, its measurement and removal, methods used for water
softening including ion-exchange, distillation and precipitation.
Practicals:
Titrimetry: Water hardness by complexometry, determination of magnesium
and aluminum by EDTA titrations, analysis of caustic soda and soda ash in
mixtures.
Flame Photometry: Lithium in industrial effluents, barium in ores, potassium
by in soil samples
Spectrophotometry: Iron in pharmaceuticals, chromium in steel, phosphate in
fertilizers.
Preparations: Calcium gluconate, detergents, cosmetics and vanishing
creams, formic acid.
Books Recommended
1. Arovan Singh “Industrial Chemistry” Vol. I & II, Anmd. Publishers. New Dehli 2. Buchel, Moretto & Wodith , Industrial Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley &
Sons.
3. Crogsins “ Unit Operation in Oganic Synthesis” McGraw Hill.
4. Pandey Vikas, “Text Book of Chemical Technology, Vol. 1 & II” Publishing Co.
New Dehli
5. Streven & Brink “Chemical Process Industries, McGraw Hill
6. Weissermel & Ape “Industrial Organic Chemistry” Verlag Chemie.
Semester-VI
Computer Applications in Chemistry
Introduction to computer, computer’s functioning; programming, understanding computer aided numerical methods test square curve fitting, numerical integration, errors, molecular modeling understanding MS Word, understanding Power Point, Internet Searching. Books Recommended:
1. Grants G.H., and Richards W.G., “Computational Chemistry”, Oxford Science Publication (1995). 2. Richard G., “Computer Simulate with Mathematics” and Spring-Verlag. Germany (2000) In the fourth year the student would take specialized courses in one of the following fields: Analytical/Biochemistry/Inorganic/ Organic/Physical Chemistry 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May

Semester-VII Credits Semester-VIII Credits

Paper-I 4 Paper-IV 4
Paper-II 4 Paper-V 4
Paper-III 4 Paper-VI 4
Practicals 4 Advanced Practicals/
otal 16 Cr Research _4
Total 16 Cr

SPECIALIZATION IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
Semester-VII
Paper - I
Electro Analytical Techniques

Theoretical Principles: Faraday’s laws of electrolytes, Nernst equation and
its

application for determination of electrode potential, redox potential, Voltaic
cells (lead storage battery, dry cells), introduction to corrosion and its prevention.
Potentiometry: Principles, instrumentation, potentiometric titrations,
reference,
indicator and ion-selective electrodes used in chemical analysis.

Conductometry: Principle, measurement of conductance, applications.

Paper-II
Polarography
Basic concept of polarography and interpretation of various polarographic
curves, measurement of decomposition potential, diffusion and limiting currents,
derivation of Ilkovic equation, logarithmic analysis of polarographic wave,
advantages and limitation of dropping mercury electrode.
Voltammetry
Polarizable and non-polarizable electrodes, solid electrodes, their scope and
limitations

Coulometry
Principle, instrumentation and applications of coulometry
Advanced Chromatography
Principle and instrumentation of gas chromatography, HPLC, and applications
Paper-III
UV-Visible Spectroscopy
Brief Introduction, instrumentation and sample handling, chromophore,
absorption by conjugated systems. Woodward Fieser rules, absorption of UV-Vis
light by organic compounds . Beer-Lambert law, theory, instrumentation and
analytical applications of UV-Visible spectrophotometry.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May


Infra red Spectroscopy
Brief introduction, instrumentation and sample handling, interpretation of IR
spectra, characteristic and absorption frequency of common functional groups,
applications in clinical, food and forensic analysis
Mass Spectrometry:
Brief introduction, instrumentation and sample handling, mass spectra and its
interpretation, applications in related to determination of molecular weight.
NMR Spectroscopy
Brief introduction, principles, instrumentation and sample handling, spin
relaxation, chemical shift, coupling constant, Factors effecting the chemical shift
and applications
Flame Spectrometry
Basic Principles of FES & AAS, instrumentation, interferences and applications
Practicals:
The experiments may be set making use of the following instruments
depending upon their
availability, special experiments may also be designed for which a specimen
list of instruments is
given below. For the innovative designing of experiments the Journal of
Chemical Education
may be consulted.
Instruments:
UV/Visible spectrophotometers
Flame photometers
pH-meters
Conductivity bridge
Gas chromatography
HPLC chromatography
Electrogravimetric apparatus
Atomic absorption spectrophotometer
Infrared spectrophotometers

Experiments:
Determination of iron in soil by spectrophotometry.
Spectrophotometric determination of molybdate ion.
Separation of dyes using column/paper/thin layer chromatography.
Separation of sugars using paper chromatography.
Separation of amino acids using paper/thin layer chromatography.
Separation of hydrocarbons using GC/HPLC.
Determination of iron in foods products spectrophotometrically.
Determination of phosphate content in commercial fertilizers by
spectrophotometry.
Determination of nickel in vegetable ghee by spectrophotometry involving
solvent extraction.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Identification and spectrophotometric determination of aspirin, phenacetine and caffeine in pharmaceutical samples. IR analysis and identification of human body stones Mass spectrometry of mineral oil samples. To determine pKa Values for the given samples of weak acids by potentiometric method To determine the quality parameters i.e. pH, conductance and concentration of anions & cations. To determine Ni (II) in steel using DMG reagent by spectrophotometric method. To determine vitamin-C concentration in the given samples. To determine calcium and zinc in milk by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. To determine lead in sewage sludge by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. To determine Mn and Cr in stainless steel spectrophotometrically. To record and characterization of IR spectra of at least 10 organic compounds
Semester-VIII
Paper-IV
X ray Spectroscopy
Introduction, lattice and unit cell, dimensional relationship, Bragg’s equation,
reciprocal lattice, single and multicrystal (powder) analysis, diffraction and
diffractrometer, identification and applications.
Thermal Methods of Analysis
Introduction to thermal methods, TGA, TG, DTA and DSC, analytical applications
Paper-V
Electrophoresis:
Introduction, Principle, instrumentation and application
Emission Spectroscopy with Plasma & Electrical Discharge Sources
Introduction, Principle, instrumentation and application
Paper VI
Basic Electronic in Instrumentation
Process Instruments and Automation Chemical Analysis:
Practicals / Research
Recommended Books:
1. A. Pople, W. G. Schneider and H. J. Berstein, "High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1959. (AD/591/P6) 2. A.J. Bard and L.R. Faulkner,” Electrochemical Methods, Fundamentals and Applications”, 2nd. Ed., Wiley, N.Y., 2001. 3. Alkemade, C.Th.J., Herrmann, R., Fundamentals of Analytical Flame Spectroscopy, Hilger, Bristol, UK. 4. Ault and G. Dudek, "An Introduction to Proton NMR Spectroscopy," Holden Day, San Francisco, 1976. 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
5. B.B. Kebbekus, S. Mitra “Environmental Chemical Analysis”, Blackie Academic & Professional, New York, NY, 1998. 6. Banwell, C. N. “Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy” 2nd ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company (U.K.): Maidenhead, U.K., 1972 7. Bernhard Welz “Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy” 2nd Ed (1985). 8. Bertin, EP. “Principles and Pracyti of X-ray Spectrometric Analysis”, Plenum Press (1975). 9. BH Vassos and GW Ewing, “Electroanalytical Chemistry”, Wiley, New York 1983 10. D. H. Williams and I. Fleming, "Spectroscopic Methods in Organic Chemistry," 4th ed., 1988. 11. D. L. Pavia, G. M. Lampman, G. S. Kriz, Jr., "Introduction to Spectroscopy," W. B. Saunders, 1979. 12. D. W. Mathieson, "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Organic Chemistry," Academic Press, London, 1967. L. M. Jackman and S. Sternhell, "Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry," Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1969. 13. D.T. Sawyer, J. L. Roberts, Jr., “Experimental Electrochemistry for Chemists” J. Wiley, New York, 1974. 14. Dahmen EAMF “Electroanalysis” Elsevier, Amsterdam 1986 15. Douglas A. Skoog, F. James Holler, Timothy A. Nieman “Principles of Instrumental Analysis”, 5th Edition, , Saunders College Publishing, New York, 1997. 16. E. A. V. Ebsworth, D. W. H. Rankin, S. Cradock, "Structural Methods in Inorganic Chemistry," Blackwell, 1987. 17. Ebdon, E.H. Evans (ed.), A. Fisher and S.J. Hill "An Introduction to Analytical Atomic Spectrometry" Wiley, Chichester, 1998. 18. Edmond De Hoffmann, Vincent Stroobant (Editors) “Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications” John Wiley & Sons; 2nd edition 2001. 19. G.D. Christian and J.E. O'Reilley, Allyn and Bacon, “Instrumental Analysis,” 2nd edition, Boston 1986. 20. G.W. Ewing “Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York 1985. 21. G.W.C. Milner, G. Phillip, “ Coulometry in Analytical Chemistry” Pergamon Press, 1967. 22. R.P.W. Scott, Techniques and Practices of Chromatography, Marcel Dekker, 1995. 23. H. A. Liebhafsky, H. G. Pfeiffer, E. H. Winslow, and P. D. Zemany, "X-Rays, Electrons, and Analytical Chemistry -- Spectrochemical Analysis with X- Rays", Wiley-Interscience, N. Y., (1972) 24. H. Budzikiewitz, C. Djerassi, and D. H. Williams, "Mass Spectrometry of Organic Compounds," Holden-Day. J. R. Chapman, "Practical Organic Mass Spectrometry," Wiley, 1985 25. H. Gunther, "NMR Spectroscopy - An Introduction," John Wiley, 1980. 26. H. H. Jaffé and M. Orchin, "Theory and Applications of Ultraviolet 27. H. Strobel and W. Heineman, “Chemical Instrumentation: A Systematic Approach”, 3rd edition, Wiley, New York 1989. 28. H. Willard, L. Merritt, J. Dean, and F. Settle, “Instrumental Methods of Analysis”, 7th edition van Nostrand Co., New York 1992. 29. Harold Gomes Cassidy ““Fundamentals of Chromatography” New York, Interscience Publishers, 1957. 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
30. J. Akitt, "NMR and Chemistry; An Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy," Chapman and Hall, London, 1973. 31. J. Heyrovsky and J. Kuta, “Principles of Polarography”, Academic Press,1966. 32. J. R. Dyer, "Applications of Absorption Spectroscopy to Organic Compounds," 33. J.D. Ingle and S.R. Crouch “Spectrochemical Methods of Analysis” Prentice- 34. J.P.Glusker and K.N.Trueblood , “Crystal Structure Analysis: a primer” , 2nd Ed, Oxford University Press, New York, 1985. 35. L. Ebdon, E.H. Evans (ed.), A. Fisher and S.J. Hill "An Introduction to Analytical Atomic Spectrometry" Wiley, Chichester, 1998. 36. L.H.J. Lajunen "Spectrochemical Analysis by Atomic Absorption and Emission" Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1992. 37. Lingane,J.J “Electroanalytical Chemistry”, 2 Ed., Interscience, 1970. 38. McLafferty, F. W. "Interpretation of Mass Spectra," 1980. 39. Melvin and Kelvin “Electrophoresis” Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning, Published by John Wiley and Sons. 40. N. Levine, “Molecular Spectroscopy”, Wiley (1975). 41. R.M. Silverstein, G.C. Bassler and T.C. Morrill "Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds,", John Wiley & Sons, New York, 5th Ed. 1991. 42. Reiger, P.H. “Electrochemistry”, Prentice Hall N.J, 1987 43. Schomburg, Gerhard “Gas Chromatography-A Practical Course” VCH(1990). 44. Snyder and J. J. Kirkland,” Introduction to Modern Liquid Chromatography”, Wiley, New York, 2nd ed., 1979. 45. Stock and Rice, Chromatographic methods, Chapman and Hall, 1967 46. Thomspon K.C. Reynold R.J. “Atomic Absorption, Fluorescence and Flame Emission Spectroscopy” 2nd Ed. John Wiley and Sons (1978). 47. Wendlandt, Wesley Wm, “Thermal Analysis” Third Edition, Wiley (1986).
4th Year: SPECIALIZATION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Semester-VII
Paper-I: Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
Periodicity
First and second row anomalies, The use of p-orbital in pi bonding , The uses (or
not) of d Orbital by non-metals, Reactivity and orbital participation, Periodic
Anomalies of the non-metals and post-tarnsition metals
Kinetics and Reaction Mechanisms of Inorganic Reactions
Classification (D-Id, Ia and A mechanisms, rate law, stationary state
approximation, inner and labile complexes
Octahedral Complexes: Acid hydrolysis, acid catalyzed, aquation, amd
anation

4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
reactions,
Square planar complexes: Nucleophilic reactivity, trans-effect, cis-effect,
effect

of leaving group; Mechanism of substitution Recimization reactions. Electron
transfer processes (outer and inner sphere reactions)
Recommended Books
1. Jorden R. B. “Reaction Mechanisms of Inorganic and Organometallic
Systems: 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press, Inc. 1998
2. Purcell, K.F. and Kortz, J.C. “Inorganic Chemistry” W. B. Saunders Company.
Holt-Saunders International Editions (1977)
3. Purcell, K.F., Kortz, J.C., “An Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry” Saunders
College Publishing (1980)
4. Shriver D. F., Atkins P. W. and Langford C. H. “Inorganic Chemistry” Oxford
University Press. (1990)
5. Wilkins R. G. “Kinetics and Mechanism of Reactions of Transition Metal
Complexes” VCH Publishers, Inc. 2nd Thoroughly Revised Edition (1991)
Paper-II: Spectroscopic Methods of Analysis
Physical Methods in Inorganic Chemistry, NMR, IR, UV Spectroscopy, Mass
Spectrometry, Flame Spectrometry (AAS & FES), Basic, principles,
instrumentation and applications.

Recommended Books
1. Bassette J., Denney C., Jeffery G. H. and Mendham J. “‘Vogel’s Textbook
of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis Including Elementary Instrumental
Analysis” English Language Book Society. 4th Edition (1978)
2. Braun R. D. “Introduction to Chemical Analysis” Mc Graw-Hill, Inc. (1982)
3. Drago R. S. “Physical Methods in Inorganic Chemistry” W. B. Saunders
Company. (1997)
4. Kemp W. “NMR in Chemistry: A Multinuclear Introduction” Macmillan Press
Ltd. (1986)
5. Pavia D. L., Lampman G. M. and Kriz G. S. “Introduction to Spectroscopy”
Saunders College Publishing. (1979)
Paper-III
Organometallic Chemistry
Introduction, Compounds of transition metals, Single, double and triple bonds to
carbon, Acyls, Alkylidene complexeds and Alkalidyne complexes), Delocalized
hydrocarbon system: alkenes, olefins, allyl and butadienes: alkyne complexes,
Cyclic complexes: four-five-six members rings
Oxidative- Addition and Reductive Elimination
Oxidative Addition: One-electron Oxidative Addition, Addition of Oxygen,
Addition of bimetallic species, Hydrogen addition, HX addition, Organic halides,
Reductive Elimination reactions
Recommended Books
1. Douglas B. E., McDaniel D. H. and Alexander J. J. “Concepts and Models of Inorganic Chemistry” John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2nd Edition (1983) 4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
2. Douglas B., McDaniel D. and Alexander J. “Concepts and Models of Inorganic Chemistry” John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3rd Edition (1994) 3. Huheey J. E. “ Inorganic Chemistry Principles of Structure and Reactivity”2nd Ed. Harper and Row Publishers. 1978 4. Huheey J. E. “ Inorganic Chemistry Principles of Structure and Reactivity”SI Unit Ed. Harper and Row Publishers. (1975) 5. Mackay K. M., Mackay R. A. and Henderson W. “Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry”. 5th Ed. Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd. (1996) 6. Miessler G. L. and Tarr Donald A. “Inorganic Chemistry”. Prentice-Hall International Ed. Prentice-Hall International, Inc. (1991) 7. Purcell, K.F. and Kortz, J.C. “Inorganic Chemistry” W. B. Saunders Company. Holt-Saunders International Editions (1977) 8. Purcell, K.F., Kortz, J.C., “An Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry” Saunders College Publishing (1980) Practicals
Practicals to be designed based on the following:
Chromatographic Techniques: Chromatographic techniques for the
separation of inorganic compounds.
Spectroscopic and Complexometric Methods: Use of organic reagents for the
estimation of various elements using spectroscopic and complexometric
methods.
Instrumental Methods of Analysis: Conductometric and potentiometric
titrations, spectrophotometric determination of metal ions.
Preparation and characterization of coordination and organometallic
compounds
The experiments may be set making use of the following instruments
depending upon their availability, special experiments may also be designed
for which a specimen list of instruments is given below. For the innovative
designing of experiments the Journal of Chemical Education may be
consulted.

Instruments:

UV/Visible spectrophotometers
Flame photometers
pH-meters
Gouy balance
Conductivity bridge
Atomic absorption spectrophotometer
Infrared spectrophotometers (for the characterization of complexes)
Simple NMR experiments depending upon the availability of the instrument.
Practical Inorganic Chemistry-I
1. Conductometry
(i) Titration of strong acid and weak acid with a strong base.
(ii) Precipitation titration involving AgNO3 and KCl.
(iii) Determination of dissociation constant Ka for acetic acid
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May

2. Potentiometry
Determination of Kl K2 and K3 for H3PO4
Determination of chloride in the presence of iodide and evaluation of Ksp of
AgI and AgCl
Practical Inorganic Chemistry-II
Use of some Organic Reagents for Gravimetric Estimation.
(a) 8-Hydroxyquinoline Al (III) and Fe (III)
(b) Nitron
Use of Some Organic Reagents for The Estimation of Various Elements
(a) Salicylaldoxime: Ni (II) in the presence of Cu (II)
(b) Anthranilic acid: Co(II) and Zn(II)
Inorganic Synthesis:
Preparation of at least six inorganic compounds / complexes in a pure state and
determination of their state of purity.
Recommended Books:
1. Bassette J., Denney C., Jeffery G. H. and Mendham J. “‘Vogel’s Textbook
of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis Including Elementary Instrumental
Analysis” English Language Book Society. 4th Edition (1978)
2. Fritz J. S., Schenk G. H. “Quantitative Analytical Chemistry” Allyn and
Bacon, Inc. 4th Edition (1979)
3. Harris W. E., Kratochvil B. “An Introduction to Chemical Analysis” Saunders
College Publishing. Holt-Saunders International Edition (1981)
4. Hatch R. C. “Experimental Chemistry” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company
(1972)
5. Jefferey, G.H., J. Bassett, J. Mendham and R. C. Denney, ‘Vogel’s
Textbook of Quantitative Analysis”
6. Marr G., Rockett B. W. “Practical Inorganic Chemistry”. Van Nostrand
Reinhold Company. (1972)
7. Pass G. and Sutcliffe H. “Practical Inorganic Chemistry: Preparations,
Reactions and Instrumental Methods” Chapman and Hall. 2nd Edition
(1974)
8. Vogel, A.I. “A Text Book of Micro and Semimicro Qualitative Inorganic
Analysis” Longmans Green & Co. 4th Edition (1954)
9. Vogel, A.I. “A Text Book of Micro and Semimicro Qualitative Inorganic
Analysis” Longman Green & Co. (1995)
Practical Inorgainc Chemistry-III 1-Credit Hours
Spectrophotometry:
Micro determination of Cr(III) by Di-phenylecarbazide.
Determination of Fe (II) by 1-10 Phenanthroline.
Determination of nitrites.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Determination of Fe (III) by 8-hydroxyquinoline.
Atomic absorption spectrometry: (subject to the availability of
equipment )
Estimation of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Co, Ni, and Zn. in various materials (e.g. food ,
tap water and brass etc.)
Spectroscopy:
Recording and characterization of at least five organic or organometallic
compounds by IR, and UV and NMR spectrophotometer to the subject of
availability of facilities
Recommended Books
1. Bassette J., Denney C., Jeffery G. H. and Mendham J. “‘Vogel’s Textbook
of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis Including Elementary Instrumental
Analysis” English Language Book Society. 4th Edition (1978)
2. Fritz J. S., Schenk G. H. “Quantitative Analytical Chemistry” Allyn and
Bacon, Inc. 4th Edition (1979)
3. Harris W. E., Kratochvil B. “An Introduction to Chemical Analysis” Saunders
College Publishing. Holt-Saunders International Edition (1981)
4. Hatch R. C. “Experimental Chemistry” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company
(1972)
5. Jefferey, G.H., J. Bassett, J. Mendham and R. C. Denney, ‘Vogel’s
Textbook of Quantitative Analysis”
6. Marr G., Rockett B. W. “Practical Inorganic Chemistry”. Van Nostrand
Reinhold Company. (1972)
7. Pass G. and Sutcliffe H. “Practical Inorganic Chemistry: Preparations,
Reactions and Instrumental Methods” Chapman and Hall. 2nd Edition
(1974)
8. Vogel, A.I. “A Text Book of Micro and Semimicro Qualitative Inorganic
Analysis” Longmans Green & Co. 4th Edition (1954)
9. Vogel, A.I. “A Text Book of Micro and Semimicro Qualitative Inorganic
Analysis” Longman Green & Co. (1995)
Semester-VIII
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
Organic reagents in Inorganic Analysis
Type of reagents, their specific nature and methods of applications with specific
examples, Complexometric and gravimetric methods involving various reagents,
chelates and chelate effect
Homogenous Catalysis by Transition Metal Complexes
Reaction of CO and hydrogen: Hydroformylation, reductive carbonylation,
reduction of CO by hydrogen, synthesis of water gas and shift reaction.
Carbonylation reaction: Synthesis of methanol and methyl acetate, adipic
ester, other carbonylation and decarbonylation reactions.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Catalytic addition of molecules to C-C multiple bonds: Homogeneous
hydrogenation, and hydrocylation and hydrocynation.
Polymer Chemistry
Molecular species: Polymeric sulfur and nitrogen compounds, borazines,
phosphazines, carboranes and silicones.
Polyionic species: Isopoly and heteropoly anions of transition elements,
poly

silicates and poly phosphates.
Metal cluster compounds.
Magnetochemistry
Theory of magnetism, paramagnetism, diamagnetism, ferro-, ferri- & anti-
magnetism, Magnetic susceptibility, magnetic moments, Faraday’s & Gouy’s
methods, orbital contribution to magnetic moment, The Russell-Sunders coupling
scheme, microstates derivation of terms chambers for p1 to p6 and d1 to d10
system
Nuclear Chemistry
Introduction, Structure of nucleus, radioactivity and radioactive series, artificial
radioactivity, Determination of half life, nuclear fission and fusion reaction,
energetic nuclear reactions, Particle accelerators and reactors, Application of
radioisotopes.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Practicals / Research
Recommended Books:
1. Choppin G. R. and Rydberg J. “Nuclear Chemistry, Theory and
Applications” Pergamon. (1980)
2. Elton L. R. B. “Introductory Nuclear Theory” The English Language Book
Society and Sir ISAAC Pitman & Sons, Ltd. (1959)
3. Friedlander G., Kennedy J. W. and Macias E. S. “Nuclear and
Radiochemistry” John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 3rd Edition (1964)
4. Friedlander G., Kennedy J. W. and Miller J. M. “Nuclear and
Radiochemistry” John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2nd Edition (1964)
5. Frost A. A. and Pearson R. G. “Kinetics and Mechanism: A Study of
Homogeneous Chemical Reactions” John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Wiley
International Edition (1961)
6. Hall L. H. “Group Theory and Symmetry in Chemistry” McGraw-Hill Book
Company. (1969)
7. Harvey B. G. “Nuclear Physics and Chemistry” Prentice-Hall, Inc. (19690
8. JR Flurry R. L. “Symmetry Groups: Theory and Chemical Applicationss”
Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1980)
9. Kaplan A and Szabo L. L. “Clinical Chemistry: Interpretation and
Techniques” Lea and Febiger. (1983)
10. Katakis D., Gordon G. “Mechanisms of Inorganic Reactions” John Wiley and
Sons. (1987)
11. Naqvi I. I. “Radiochemistry” University Grants Commission. (1990)
12. Schrauzer G. N. “Transition Metals in Homogeneous Catalysis” Marcel
Dekker, Inc. (1971)
13. Smart L. and Moore E. “Solid State Chemistry: An Introduction” Chapman
and Hall. (1992)
4th Year: SPECIALIZATION IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Semester-VII
Any two of the following courses can be taken:
Note: Any additional papers may be added according to availability of experts.
Paper I - Structure Elucidation of Natural Products
Chemical methods
Spectroscopic methods involving IR, UV, NMR, and Mass Spectroscopy
Paper II - Organic Synthesis
Organic Synthetic Reactions involving C-C, C-N, C-O Bonds.
Oxidation and Reduction Protective Groups
Note: These courses can be substituted with any of the following:
Natural Products
Terpenoids
Alkaloids
Steroids
Antibiotics
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Paper III - Reaction Mechanism
Determination of organic reaction mechanisms by kinetic and non-kinetic
methods.
Reactive Intermediates
Molecular Rearrangements
Organic Polymers
Synthetic Polymers, Bio-Polymers
Practicals:
The experiments may be set making use of the following instruments depending
upon their Availability.
Instruments:
UV/Visible spectrophotometers
Gas chromatography
HPLC
Infrared spectrophotometers
Mass spectrometers
NMR
Experiments:
Multi-step synthesis of organic compounds (10 Compounds)
Analysis of commercial drugs (10 Drugs)
Qualitative and preparative chromatography
Semester-VIII
Paper I - Heterocyclic Chemistry
Paper II - Synthetic Applications of Name Reactions
Note: These courses can be substituted with any of the following:
Reactive Intermediates
Chemistry and synthetic application of: carbenes, nitrenes, ketenes, free
radicals, carbonium ions and carbanion
Paper III – Chemistry and Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites:
Terpens, Steroids, Alkaloids, Antibiotia.
Applications of Computational Chemistry
Research Project, applied or academic in nature may be allocated.
Practicals / Research


4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Books Recommended:
1. McMurry.J, “Organic Chemistry” Thomson Asia Pte Ltd, Singapore, Fifth
Edition (2000).
2. Morrison.R.T, Boyd.R.N, “Organic Chemistry” Prentice-Hall, Inc; Sixth
Edition (1992).
3. Solomons.T.W.G, Fryhle.C.B, Johnson.R.G, “Study Guide and Solutions
Manual to Accompany Organic Chemistry” John Wiley & Sons, Inc; Seventh
Edition (2000).
4. March.J, “Advanced Organic Chemistry Reactions, Mechanisms and
Structure” John Wiley & Sons, Inc; Fourth Edition (1992)
5. Hornback.J.M, “Organic Chemistry” Brooks/Cole Publishing Company
(1998).
6. Pine.S.H, Hendrickson.J.B, Cram.D.J, Hammond.G.S, “Organic Chemistry”
McGraw-Hill, Inc; Fourth Edition (1980).
7. Finar.I.L, “Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry”Longman, Third
Edition, Vol.I (1959).
8. Finar.I.L, “Stereochemistry and the Chemistry of Natural Products, “English
Language book Society and Longman Group Ltd; Fifth Edition, Vol.II (1975).
9. Sykes.P, “A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry” Longman
Group Ltd. (1986).
10. Warren.S, “Designing Organic Syntheses A Programmed Introduction to the
Synthon Approach” John Wiley & Sons,Inc(1980).
11. Norman.R.O.C, “Principles of Organic Synthesis” Chapman and Hall Ltd,
Second Edition (1978).
12. Corey.E.J, Cheng.X.M, “The Logical of Chemical Synthesis” Wiley
Interscience(1989).
13. Greene.T.W, Nuts.P.G, “Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis” John
Wiley & Sons, Second Edition (1991).
14. Cleyden.J, Greeves.N, Warren.S and Wothers.P, “Organic Chemistry”
Oxford University Press (2001).
15. Nizami.S.S, “Reterosynthetic Approach to Organic Synthesis”, Higher
Education Commission (2003).
16. Burger. A, “Medicinal Chemistry”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc; Third Edition,
Part.I (1970).
17. Warren.S, “Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach”, John Wiley &
Sons Ltd (1982).
18. Cordell.G.A, “Introduction to Alkaloids”, John Wiley & Sons,Inc.(1981).
19. Pavia.D.L, Lampman.G.M, Kriz.G.S, “Introduction to Spectroscopy: A Guide
for Students of Organic Chemistry” Saunders College
Publishing/Holt.Rinehart and Winston (1979).
20. Bender.G.T, “Principles of Chemical Instrumentation”, W.B.Saunders
Company (1987).
21. Akitt.J.W, “NMR and Chemistry an Introduction to the Fourier transform
multinuclear era”, J.W.Arrowsmith Ltd, Bristol, Second Edition (1983).
22. Macomber.R.S, “NMR Spectroscopy Basic Principles and Applications”,
Books for Professionals, Inc (1988).
23. Kemp.W, “NMR in Chemistry A multinuclear Introduction”, The Macmillan
Press Ltd. (1986).
24. Silverstein.R.M, Bassler.G.C, Morrill.T.C, “Spectrometric Identification of
Organic Compounds”, John Wiley & Sons; Inc; Fourth Edition (1981).
25. Kemp.W, “Organic Spectroscopy”, Macmillan Education Ltd; Third Edition
(1991).
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
26. Budzikiewicz.H, Djerass.C, Williams.D.H, “Mass Spectrometry of Organic
Compounds”, Holden-Day, Inc (1967).
27. Whittaker.D, “Interpreting Organic Spectra”, The Royal Society of Chemistry
(2000).
28. Creswell.C.J/Runquist.O.A,Campbell.M.M, “Spectral Analysis of Organic
Compounds”, Burgess Publishing Company, Second Edition (1972).
29. Stowell.J.C, “Intermediate Organic Chemistry”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc;
Second Edition (1994).
SPECIALIZATION IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Semester VII
Quantum Chemistry
Operators and their properties. Angular momentum. Central field problem.
Hydrogen-like atoms. Approximate methods. Perturbation methods and
variations principle. Valence bond and molecular orbital theories. pi-electron
calculations.
Molecular Spectroscopy
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Microwave, Infrared and
Raman spectroscopy. Symmetry properties of molecules. Electronic spectra of
simple molecules. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Solid State Chemistry
Intermolecular forces. Symmetry of condensed systems. Properties of solids
(electrical, mechanical and optical). Lattice defects, dopping for defects.
Electron-gas model, heat capacity paradox, electrical conductivity. Band theory
of metallic state. Conductors semiconductors and insulators. Controlled valency
and hopping phenomena, p & n-type conductivity, p,n-junctions. Solid state
reactions. Developments in superconductivity.
Practicals :
The experiments may be set making use of the following instruments depending
upon their availability, special experiments may also be designed for which a
specimen list of instruments is given below. For the innovative designing of
experiments the Journal of Chemical Education may be consulted.
Instruments:
UV/Visible spectrophotometers
pH-meters
Conductivity bridge
Gas chromatography
HPLC
Atomic absorption spectrophotometer
Infrared spectrophotometers
Dipole meters
Electrogravimetric apparatus
Light Scatttering Instruments
Stopped flow spectrophotometers
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Experiments:
Determination of partial molar quantities
Determination of free energy changes, standard free energies.
Verification of Kohlrausch law.
Study of temperature dependence of electrode potentials
Determination of heat of solution, ionic reactions and other experiments from
thermochemistry
Study of multistep reactions
Evaluation of energy of activation
Sugar analysis and inversion studies by polarimetry
Study of isotherms and experiments of surface chemistry
Determination of molecular weight of a polymer by viscosity method
Precipitation value of electrolytes
Measurement of IR spectra of simple compound and their interpretation
Measurement of cyclic voltammogram of an organic compound and its
interpretation
Determination of dipole moment of an organic liquid
Determination of percentage composition of KMnO4 / K2Cr2O7 in a given
solution by
spectrophotometry
Stoichiometry of a complex in solution by Job’s method
Evaluation of pKa value of an indicator by spectrometric method
Semester-VIII
Surface and Catalytic Chemistry
Solids surfaces. Gas solid interface. Thermodynamics of adsorption.
Heterogeneous catalysis. Kinetics and mechanisms of catalyzed reactions.
Adsorption at liquid surfaces. Enzymatic catalysis. Organized molecular
assemblies. Colloidal solutions. Catalyst preparation methods. Industrial
catalysts.
Polymer Chemistry
Definition and classification of polymers. Polymerization and co-polymerization.
Polymer solution. Polymer characterization: structure property relationship.
Elastomers, plastics, fibers, blends and alloys.
Chemical Kinetics
Advanced theories of unimolecular reactions. Chain and non-chain complex
reactions. Fast reactions, experimental techniques for measurement of fast
reaction kinetics. Kinetics of catalyized reaction. Potential energy surfaces.
Solar reactions.
Statistical Thermodynamics
Description of various systems. Concepts of states, accessible states and
distribution. Probability concepts. Maxwell-Boltzmann’s statistics for the systems
of independent particles. Partition functions. Statistical thermodynamics.
Applications to equilibrium and chemical kinetics. Bose-Einstein’s and Fermi-
Dirac’s statistics.
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear systematic. Sources of nuclear instability. Nuclear energetics. Nuclear
models: shell model, liquid drop model. Nuclear reactions. Fission and fusion.
Photochemical reactions
Photochemical reactions in gas phase and in solutions. Quantum yield, flash
photolysis. Advanced approach to kinetics of photochemical reactions.
Theories of Electrolytes:
Interfacial phenomena. Electrode kinetics. Mechanisms of electrode reactions.
Cyclic voltammetry and its applications. Electrochemical impedance
spectroscopy.

Recommended Books:
1. Albery J., Electrode Kinetics, Clarendon, Oxford, 1975.
2. Asperger S., “Chemical Kinetics and Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms” 2nd
Ed., Springer Verlag (2003).
3. Aston J.G. and Fritz J.J, “Thermodynamics and Statistical
Thermodynamics” New York, John-Wiley (1959).
4. Aziz F. and Rodgers M. A.J., “Radiation Chemistry Principles and
Application” Ed., VCH Publishers, Inc, (1987).
5. Banwell C.N., Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy” 3rd Ed., , New
Delhi,
6. Bard A. and Faukner L. R, “Electrochemical Methods, Fundamentals and
Application” John Wiley, New York. (latest available edition).
7. Barrow G.M., “Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy,” New York, McGraw-
Hill (1962).
8. Becker E.D., “High Resolution NMR; Theory & Chemical Application”, New
York, Academic Press (1980).
9. Bible R. H., Jr., "Interpretation of NMR Spectra: An Empirical Approach,"
Plenum Press, New York, (1965).
10. Bond G.C “Heterogeneous Catalysis” 2nd Ed., , Clarendon Press. Oxford
(1987).
11. Cassidy H.G., “Fundamentals of Chromatography”. Interscience Publishers
New York, 1957.
12. Engel, Thomas and Philip Reid, “Thermodynamics, Statistical
Thermodynamics”, and Kinetics 1st Ed., Benjamin Cummings, (2006).
13. Espenson, J. H. Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism “2nd Ed.,
McGraw Hill London (2002)
14. Flory, “Principle of Polymer Chemistry” Cornell (1953).
15. Fried J.R. “Polymer Science and Technology”. Prenitce Hall 1995.
16. Friedlander G. and Kennedy J.W “Nuclear and Radiochemistry”, 3rd Ed.
John Wiley & Sons, New York (1981).
17. Graybal J.D., “Molecular Spectroscopy,”, New York, McGraw-Hill(1988)
18. Gregory R. Choppin and Jan Rayberg “Nuclear Chemistry Theory and
Applications”, 1st Ed., Pergaman Press, Oxford. New York (1998).
19. Griffiths, David J., “ Introduction to Quantum Mechanics” 2nd Ed., Prentice
Hall (2004)
4th Board of Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24th May
20. Hayward, David O., “Quantum Mechanics for Chemists” 1st Ed., John Wiley 21. Hiemenzt P.C., and Rajagopalan, “Principles of Colloid & Surface Chemistry,” 3rd Ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, (1997). 22. Hill T.L., “Statistical Mechanics, , New York, McGraw-Hill (1956). 23. House, James E., “Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics” 2nd Ed., 24. I.I Naqvi “Electrochemistry” Higher Education Commission (In Press) 25. J.H Espenson “Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanisms”, 2nd Ed. 26. Kemp, W., “NMR Chemistry: A Multinuclear Introduction’, London, 27. Lajunen L.H.J., "Spectrochemical Analysis by Atomic Absorption and Emission" Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1992. 28. Malcolm, P. S., “Polymer Chemistry” Oxford University Press (2005). 29. Mandelkern “ An Introduction to Macromolecules”, 2nd, Springer (1983). 30. Mathews F.L. and Rawlings R.D, “Composite Materials: Engineering and 31. Micheal, J. P., “Reaction Kinetics” Oxford University Press (2005). 32. Mohammad and Amjad. ‘Principles of Electrode Kinetics” Roohi Printers, Lahore. 33. N. Davidson “Statistical Mechanics, New York, McGraw-Hill (1962). 34. Pople C.P., “Electron Spin Resonance”, John Wiley New York (1967). 35. Ravue, “Principles of Polymer Chemistry”. 2nd Ed. Plenum Publishers. (2000) 36. Skoog D.A., West D.D., and Holler F.J., “Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry” 6th Ed., Saunders College Publishing, 1992. 37. Spinks J.W.T., and Woods R.J., “An Introduction to Radio Chemistry” by 2nd Ed., John Wiley, New York (1976). 38. Stock and Rice, “Chromatographic Methods”, Chapman and Hall, (1967). 39. F.W Billmeyer, Jr “Textbook of Polymer Science “, John Wiley & Sons 1994. 40. Wallace S. and Brey JR., “Physical Method For Determining Molecular Geometry” 41. Wayne R. P. “Principles and Applications of Photochemistry”, University Press Oxford London (1988). 42. West A.R., “Solid State Chemistry”, J. Wiley, New York (1989)

Source: http://hu.edu.pk/course%20contents/BS_chem.pdf

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tional specification of ventricular myosininducible expression in cultured neonatallight chain 2 expression in the primitivemurine heart tube. Proc Natl Acad Sci USAZou Y, Chien KR: 1995. EFIA/YB-1 is a com-Zammit PS, Kelly RG, Franco D, et al.: 2000. and positively regulates transcription ofSuppression of atrial myosin gene expres-the myosin light chain-2 v gene. Mol Cellventricular spec

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