Like estrogen, which gets much more public attention, progesterone is a
female sex hormone. Women produce it in the ovaries and adrenal glands,
and during pregnancy in the placenta. With all the talk about estrogen,
progesterone is sometimes left behind as the forgotten female hormone.

Hormones are our bodies’ chemical messengers. PROGESTERONE?
They travel through the bloodstream to trigger certain No. Although these terms are often used interchangeably, activities or changes in the body. Hormones work by they do not mean the same thing. Progesterone refers
binding to specialized areas of cells known as receptor to the hormone produced in the body, or produced sites. There they initiate a chain of events in specific from a plant source but still chemically identical to cells or organs. For example, progesterone has been human progesterone. In contrast, progestin is a known to initiate a calming effect in the brain, hormone that is synthetically produced and may differ in structure to progesterone. You may also have heard of progestogens. This is a general term that applies WHAT DOES PROGESTERONE DO?
to the category of both natural and synthetic hormones During the reproductive years, progesterone prepares that act like progesterone in the uterus. See the the uterine lining (or womb) for pregnancy. Each month, difference in the molecular structure depicted below. progesterone levels rise following ovulation. Unless you become pregnant, the progesterone levels drop HERE’S WHAT THE “NATURAL” PROGESTERONE
and trigger a monthly menstrual period. Progesterone can also play an important role in balancing out the effects of estrogen and other hormones. If you have too much estrogen and not enough progesterone, your body may be thrown out of balance. During menopause hormone imbalance can lead to symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, insomnia, vaginal dryness, irritability, or decreased sex drive. During the reproductive years, hormone imbalance may PROGESTERONE MOLECULE
cause premenstrual complaints such as water retention, breast tenderness, migraines or mood swings. HERE’S WHAT THE ALTERED MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
Progesterone is a hormone produced in the body. The term "natural" or "bio-identical" progesterone refers to progesterone that is identical to the progesterone that the human body produces. Natural or bio-identical progesterone is formulated from a substance found in Mexican wild yams and other plants. These similar plant hormones are PROGESTIN MOLECULE
further modified in a laboratory to become identical in chemical structure to the human progesterone ARE PROGESTERONE AND PRODUCTS THAT
as in this large French study. As with all hormones, HOW DO I TALK TO MY HEALTH CARE PROVIDER
they should be considered carefully with the assistance ABOUT NATURAL PROGESTERONE?
No. Wild yam is an herbal extract. Whether found in a capsule of your physician or other health care provider.
Discuss the range of options and choices with your or cream, wild yam extract the herb, does not convert into
health care provider for menopause or other women's progesterone in the body. Products that contain progesterone IS PROGESTERONE RIGHT FOR ME?
health concerns. Discuss the information in this How can a hormone
should be labeled as containing USP Progesterone. “Natural” or “bio-identical” progesterone can be found connected with pregnancy also
in a variety of forms: creams, gels, suppositories, affect my mood after
pills, or patches – and can come in a range of doses. WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION ABOUT
We recommend that you work with your health care PROGESTERONE AND MENOPAUSE?
Synthetic progestins do not always act the same in provider to find out if you need to supplement your in many parts of your body besides the uterus. Thus Women in Balance is a national, non-profit association the body as natural progesterone. Synthetic progestins hormones with progesterone. Then if warranted, progesterone, or a lack of progesterone, may affect other of women, doctors, health care professionals, and are broken down in the liver into a variety of work with them to ensure you get the right physi- aspects of your health, too, such as fat metabolism, national organizations dedicated to helping women metabolites, and while some of these bind to proges- sleeping patterns, thyroid activity, mood, sex drive, ological, individual dose for you. Progesterone can be achieve optimal health, wellness and hormone terone receptors and thus may mimic some of prescribed by your physician, or progesterone cream balance. Please visit our website for more information, bio-identical progesterone’s effects, others can bind can be purchased at natural products stores or online. resources and research and to sign up for the free to various types of steroid receptors throughout the However, not all progesterone creams are created body, causing side effects1. For example, while equal. If you are purchasing them at a local store, and menstrual periods, you may experience other natural progesterone promotes and sustains pregnancy, look for a product that contains USP progesterone symptoms. For example, progesterone has a calming
synthetic progestins cannot be used during preg-
effect on the nervous system, thus a lower level of the nancy due to the potential risk to the fetus hormone may contribute to increased night sweats, Many women find relief from the use of progesterone because of their wider range of hormonal effects. Also, Every woman will experience changes in her health anxiety, insomnia, irritability or mood swings.
cream. One research study found that using a cream clinical trials comparing bio-identical progesterone makes it easier for women to adjust their use to meet during her lifetime. Good health, wellness, and with synthetic progestins are showing a significantly hormone balance is the foundation for everything HOW CAN PROGESTERONE CREAM HELP ADDRESS
their needs as well as allowing them to use a more better safety profile for the bio-identical progesterone women do – from work to taking care of their families THE HORMONAL IMBALANCES OF MENOPAUSE?
efficient, lower dose than with pills, while benefiting group; in one large trial (PEPI), the bio-identical progesterone group had a healthier blood lipid profile2.
Progesterone cream is easily absorbed into the blood in partnership with a health care professional, can stream through the skin. Progesterone cream may decide what works for you. Be an informed consumer.
help support progesterone levels and CAN alleviate WHAT HAPPENS TO PROGESTERONE DURING
some menopausal discomforts. Clinical studies have MENOPAUSE?
shown that bio-identical progesterone cream effectively WHAT DOES USP PROGESTERONE MEAN?
As you approach menopause, progesterone is the first The United States Pharmacopoeia is a compendium
hormone to decrease, followed by fluctuating estrogen of drugs published every year by the United States levels. This phase, called perimenopause, may start 1 Stanczyk FZ. All progestins are not created equal.
Pharmacopoeial Convention. Stating USP before the as early as your late thirties or early forties and last ingredient, in this case USP Progesterone, means Progesterone has been used in a number of clinical as long as ten years. Your periods may become more that it is a known substance and matches quality 2 Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of estrogen or
applications since 1940. Its early use was to assist estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in irregular. You may not ovulate some months, and specifications published in this compendium. women with infertility. Progesterone has NOT been postmenopausal women. The postmenopausal thus not produce any progesterone. This may disrupt estrogen/progestin interventions (PEPI) trial. JAMA 1995; linked to increased cancer risk. In fact, a large study the estrogen/progesterone balance, causing a variety of conducted in France to look at the risk of breast symptoms such as bloating, breast tenderness, night 3 Leonetti HB, Longo S, Anasti JN. Transdermal progesterone
cancer with hormone replacement therapy found that sweats, anxiety, insomnia, headaches, and irritability.
cream for vasomotor symptoms and postmenopausal bone loss. using bio-identical progesterone did not cause any Couldn’t I simply get
After menopause, your ovaries cease to produce increase in breast cancer, whereas use of synthetic more progesterone by
4 Fournier A, Berrino F, Riboli E, Avenel V, Clavel-Chapelon F.
progesterone, but the body will continue to produce progestins did result in a statistically significant eating wild yams?
Breast cancer risk in relation to different types of hormone up to 40% of the levels of estrogen you had before replacement therapy in the E3N-EPIC cohort. Int J Cancer menopause. Of course, the level of production that progesterone is often confused with progestins,
depends on the individual. Since progesterone affects which have been linked to increased cancer risk as 5 Leonetti HB, Landes J, Steinberg D, Anasti JN. Topical
progesterone cream as an alternative progestin in hormone numerous aspects of your health besides pregnancy evidenced in the Women’s Health Initiative as well therapy. Altern Ther Health Med 2005; 11(6):36-38.



What is SPAM? “Unsolicited, unwanted email that was sent indiscriminately, directly or indirectly, by a sender having no current relationship with the recipient.” Objective: 1. Develop an algorithm apart from Bayesian probabilities,i.e through Frequent item setMining, Support Vector Machines (SVM). 2. Compare the accuracy of the algorithms (Bayesian, frequent item set mining, SupportV

Org. Chem. J. 2010 , 2 , 75-80 Synthesis of dithiocarbamate ligand Synthesis of a New Dithiocarbamate Compound and Study of Its Biological Properties Hafezeh Nabipour,a, b Shahriar Ghammamy,a,c, Shahriar Ashuri,d Zahra Shokri Aghbolaghc, e aDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch, Takestan, Iran. bMember of Young Researchers Club,

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