Pesticide Residues in Drinking Michael F. Hare, Ph.D. Pesticides Division Texas Department of Agriculture [Federal Register: September 27, 2002 (Vol 67, # 188)] [Notices] [Page 61099-61102] ---------------------------------------- ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Caffeine; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment. SUMMARY: EPA has received a quarantine exemption request from the USDA APHIS to use the pesticide caffeine (1H-purine- 2,6-dione,3,7-dihydro-1,3,7- trimethyl-) (CAS No. 58-08-2) to treat up to 200 acres of floriculture and nursery crops, parks, hotels and resort areas, and forest habitats to control Coqui and Greenhouse frogs. USDA’s Pesticide Data
• Residue data from 1991 to the present
• Focused on foods consumed by children
• Data are representative of exposure in the US diet. Commodities apple juice grapefruit broccoli can/frz grnbns grapefruit green beans green beans green beans oranges potatoes green beans potatoes potatoes sweet corn potatoes sweet corn sweet peas sweet corn potatoes sweet peas sweet pot. sweet corn tomatoes sweet peas wheat whole milk apple juice apple juice apples can peach cantaloupe cantaloupe cantaloupes apple juice can peach cn/frz grnbnscorn syrup broccoli apple sauce can spinach corn syrup cucumbers cherries asparagus can/frz grnbnsgrape juice grape juice cucumbers frz w squash milk cherries orange juice orange juice oats (roll/brn) green beans pears (frsh/cn) broccoli potat spec. soybeans spinach, frozen nectarines potatoes strwbrs (frsh/frz) oranges mushrooms soybeans strawberries sweet bell pepperpeaches nectarines cucumbers sweet pot. tomatoes (fr/can) peanut butter mushrooms sweet pot. tomatoes w. squash (fr/frz) pears (can) tomatoes wnt squash pineapples pineapples potatoes potatoes pineapples whole milk can swt.corn potatoes winter squash can set peas strwbrs (frsh/frz) can tom.paste spinach swt bll peps sweet bell peppers tomatoes (can) water, drnk sweet corn, can beef, fat sweet corn, frozen beef, liver sweet peas, can beef, muscle sweet peas, frozen poultry, fat water, fin. drnk. poultry, liver poultry, muscle Asparagus, canned Cantaloupe Cantaloupe Asparagus, fresh Cauliflower Cauliflower Cucumbers Cream, heavy Eggplant Cantaloupe Green Beans, canne Grapefruit Cucumgers Green Beans, fresh Grapes Green Beans, canned Lettuce Green Beans, fresh Mushrooms Green Beans, frozen Orange Juice Peaches, canned Peaches, fresh Peaches, canned Orange Juice Pear Juice, conc/pure Pears Pears, fresh Soybean Grain Spinach, canned Plums, Fresh Sweet Bell Peppers Strawberries Plums, dried (prunes Sweet Corn, frozen Sweet Bell Peppers Pork, adipose/muscle Sweet Peas, frozen Sweet Potatoes Soybean Grain Sweet Potatoes Tomatoes Strawberries Tomatoes Water, finished Water, bottled Water, fin. drnk. Water, untreated Water, finished Wheat Flour Wheat Flour Water, untreated Winter Squash Watermelon Wheat Grain Winter Squash Pesticides in Fruits & Vegetables # pest. test. # comm. # samples % detect. # viol. f&v's wheat flour drinking water f&v's (fresh) f&v's (processed) wheat flour drinking water f&v's (fresh) f&v's (processed) Bottled Water drinking water
• Participating labs monitored 158 pesticides plus 48 metabolites, degradates, and isomers using multiresidue methods.
• Accepted samples are prepared emulating the practices of the average consumer to more closely represent actual exposure to residues.
• Data from 2002
– 10,056 samples of fruits and vegetables
– 725 barley samples
– 495 rice samples
– 924 beef samples
– 699 drinking water samples PDP Summary 2002 Pesticide Detections Commodity Fruits & Vegs PDP Summary 2002 Residue Detections Residues Percent Cum. Percent Finished Drinking Water Monitoring Survey
• Coordinated with EPA and the AWWA* • Water treatment facilities are solicited • Facility personnel collect samples • Analysis at PDP laboratories • PDP provides data to facilities in quarterly * American Water Works Association Finished Drinking Water Monitoring Survey
• Unlike data collected on f&v, not representative.
• Reflects the unique characteristics of the watersheds sampled.
• Collected just before distribution to consumers. Drinking Water
• 2001: Samples from NY (11), CA (10)
– Two highly populated regions – Different hydrological settings – Samples collected bimonthly
• 2002: Five new sites in KA (2), CO (2), TX (1) added
– Rural areas (<50,000 pop.) – Samples collected weekly Change in Criteria
• 2001-2003 sites selected to represent diversity of land use
• 2004 and 2005, criteria for site selection changed.
– Service to more than 50,000 people – Use of surface water as primary source – Location in regions of heavy agriculture where it was known that pesticides heavily applied. Table 9. Sampling summary; 2001-2005. % of samples w/ detects 14.34 Table 8. Summary of selected drinking water pesticide data from 2001-2005. %Samples with detects Pesticide 2005 Trenda
a Trend symbols: (-) declining; (+) increasing; (N/A) trend not applicableND: Not Determned; was not included in the pesticide analysis. Atrazine Atrazine (%detects) Metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid Table 10. Detection Limit Values and Detection percentages for selected pesticides in drinking water. 2001-2005. % Detects %Detects Change Pesticide 2005 %Changea in DLb Atrazine (%detects) Desethyl atrazine (% detects) Desisopropyl atrazine (% det.) Hydroxy atrazine (% dets.) Metolachlor (% dets.) M. ethanesulfonic acid (%det.) M. oxanilic acid (% dets.) Simazine (% detects) Alachlor (% detects) A. ethanesulfonic acid (% dets) Alachlor oxanilic acid (% det.) 2,4-D (% detects)
a To calculate % Change in the % Detections the % of detects in 2001 were subtracted from the in 2005; the remainder was then divided by the % Detects in 2001 (baseline) and the result mu 100 to give a percentage change from 2001.
b Detection Limits are express and a "fold" decrease relative to detection limits in 2001. For inst the Lower DL for Atrazine, the Lower DL for 2001 (5.0) was divided by the Lower DL for 2005 (0 resulting in a 7.6 fold decrease in the Lower DL from 2001 to 2005. Okay, so what does it all mean? We need some… …perspective! Atrazine, 2005
• Max. conc. Detected?
• What is the Risk?
scenario water gives you 0.24% of the RfDc. A Simple Comparison
• Average American consumes 4.5 cups of coffee per day. That’s about 238 mg of caffeine per person per day.
• Average exposure to atrazine in finished drinking water is 0.003 mg/person/day.
• So, average American is exposed to about 80,000 times more caffeine than atrazine. A Simple Comparison, pt. 2 Exposure
• Atrazine 0.003 mg
• Malathion 0.000002 So, is Caffeine killing us?
• What we know.
– Caffeine can increase blood pressure but only for a short time. There is no other biologically plausible reason why coffee should cause heart or other vascular effects. Still Concerned? How about bottled water? Table 6. Distribution of Residues by Pesticide in Bottled Water in 2005. Pesticide Table 7. Comparison of pesticide residues in bottled water and in public drinking water for selected pestides in 2005. % of Samples with Detects Drinking Bottled Pesticide Difference Cheers for Beers
• Beer has been found to be protective against heart attacks among middle aged men in the Czech Republic. Over 900 men who drank only beer were studied. Those who drank 5 to 9 liters per week were less than half as likely to have a heart attack than those who drank no beer (British Med. J., May 20, 2000). Acute Toxicity (LD50) Chemical Chemical Botulinum toxin Dioxin (TCDD) Strychnine sulfate Lime/Sulfur2 CARBOFURAN Vitamin D32 Boric acid2 Rotenone2 Ferrous sulfate2 Nicotine2 ATRAZINE Caffeine MALATHION NaCl (salt) Copper sulfate2 GLYPHOSATE Solanine Ethyl alcohol2
1Oral Lethal Dose 50% in rats2 Approved organic pesticides. Drinking Water
• 372 of 699 samples (53.2%) had detectable levels of pesticides.
– 28 different pesticides out of 150 tested for.
– 59% were at or below LOQ (usually 3X
– Only 16 detected above the LOQ.
– None exceeded MCLs.
• Most common pesticides (699 total samples)
– Atrazine (258)
– Metolachlor (233)
– Metolachlor ESA (198)
– Atrazine desethyl (154)
– Metolachlor (152)
– Simazine (141)
– Atrazine disospropyl (127)
– Alachlor ESA (76)
Initially, some philosophers such as G. E. Moore and R.M. Hare firstly introduces the idea of supervenience in ethics. Later, the idea of supervenience is also used in the philosophy of mind, and Donald Davison is perhaps the first philosopher who introduces supervenience into the discussion of the mind-body problem. In ethics, philosophers discuss whether ethical properties supervene on non-e
CURRICULUM VITAE MARCEL L. CORSTJENS Address: INSEAD Boulevard de Constance F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex France Date of Birth : 02 September 1949 Nationality: Belgian Civil Status : Married, two children GRADUATE EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT 1975-78 Ph D Business Administration (Marketing), UC Berkeley. First Prize, Doctoral Dissertation Competition, Assistan