Vol 122, No 2
July 13, 2010
in males was significantly higher in manual laborers (HR 2.8, 95% CI, 1.2– 6.3; p ABI and Systolic Pressure In Older Population >40 Years
in managers. In females risk of cardiovascular death was significantly higher in managers (HR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–17.9; pϽ0.05), pensioners (HR 5.1, 95% CI 1.4 –19.0; pϽ0.05) and manual occupational group (HR 13.2, 95% CI 3.1–56.3; pϽ0.001) compared to high-skill jobs group.
Relative to marital status HR was higher in single - 2.3 (95% CI 1.3– 4.2; pϽ0.001), widowed - 4.9 (95% CI 2.0 –12.0; pϽ0.001) and divorced men - 2.6 (95% CI 1.6 – 4.3; pϽ0.001) in
comparison to married men. In females no association between marital status and cardiovas-
cular death was observed. Conclusion: The highest risk of cardiovascular death was indicated
ABI Values According to Blood Pressure in Older Population >40 Years
in low social class groups (subjects with primary education and manual occupational status)and in single, widowed and divorced men as well.
Blood Pressure and Drinking Behaviors among Russian Men Aged
Epidemiological Survey on Prevalence of Hypertension and Related Risk
30–59 Years
Factors in a Community (Chengdu, 2008ϳ2009): 5202 Case Analysis
Olga Polikina1, Artyom Gil2, Nikolay Kiryanov3, Maxim Vasilyev3, Lyudmila Saburova4,
Jun-Bo Xu, Gang Huang, Ting-Jie Zhang, Xiao-Li Nie, Ya Liu, Xiao-Bo Huang, Zhao-Hui Liu,
Alexey Oralov4, Keith Tomlin1, Martin McKee1, David Leon11 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (London, United Kingdom); 2Moscow Cardiovascular and Metabolism Lab, Chengdu Second People’s Hospital (Chengdu, China) Medical Academy Named After I.M. Sechenov (Moscow, Russian Federation); 3Izhevsk StateMedical Academy (Izhevsk, Russian Federation); 4Izhevsk State Technical University Introduction: Hypertension prevalence has increased significantly during the last 30 years.
This report is one of serial studies on cardiovascular risk factors in population of Chengdu, in2008 –2009; it is focused on hypertension, and its correlation with other cardiovascular risk The extent to which alcohol consumption confers protection against cardiovascular disease factors. Methods: In this community population survey, 5202 male and female residents of
remains controversial. However, there is now good evidence that alcohol consumption is Chengdu, aged 40 –79 years were stratified clustering sampling. The population statistical associated with increased blood pressure, although most studies of this association have been parameters, habits, history, physical and laboratory examination findings were investigated in conducted in populations with moderate levels of consumption. We have conducted a relation to blood pressure. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in this population was
longitudinal study of 1300 men aged 30 –59 years sampled at random who were living in a 29.4%, (31.0% in men, and women), Classified by the 1999 WHO/ISH guideline, the typical Russian city west of the Ural Mountains to determine the health effects of the distinctive, prevalence of grade-1, 2, 3, hypertension was 18.4%, 6.8%, and 3.2%, separately. The heavy patterns of alcohol consumption found in this population. Based on data collected from percentages of each consecutive grade as contributors to total hypertension were 64.79%, interviews with the men and proxy informants, and a physical examination, we have analysed 23.94%, and 11.27%. While classified as isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), isolated systolic the associations of drinking pattern, type of drink (including non-beverage alcohols such as hypertension (ISH) and diastolic–systolic hypertension (SDH) the prevalence were 3.2%, 12.8% medicinal tinctures). A very high prevalence of raised blood pressure was found, with 6 out 10 and 12.1%, respectively. When compared the prevalence of hypertension in 2008 –2009 men being classified as hypertensive, with 10% of men having severe hypertension (blood (24.65%) to 1979 (6.39%), 1991 (9.07%), and 1999 (15.54%), in adults (Ͼ18 yrs) of Chengdu, pressures greater than 180/110 mm Hg). Blood pressure was positively related to average the prevalence increased significantly. Hypertension prevalence increased steeply with age, the volume of ethanol consumed and with frequency of behaviours such as consumption of prevalence of 70 Ϫ79 years is 60.4%, and it was 3.95 times than it in the group of 40 – 49 non-beverage alcohols and frequent hangovers. Compared to men who did not drink years. There was even more high prevalence of prehypertension prevalence in this population, non-beverage alcohols, those who did had an odds ratio of hypertension of 2.45 (95% CI 1.22, it was 37.5% in total (41.7% in men, 33.0% in women), and the associated risk ratios for 4.94) adjusted for age, body mass index and education. The equivalent effect of frequent diabetes, and some of classic risk factors were higher in prehypertensives than it in the hangovers (more than once per month) was 1.95 (95% CI 1.28, 1.96). We estimate that 10% normotensives. The hypertensive awareness, treatment and control rates in this survey were of hypertension can be attributed to hazardous alcohol consumption, the prevalence of which 27.53%, 25.14%, 38.2%, respectively, while the treatment rate and control rate in the general population only 6.3%, 3.3% respectively. The therapeutic drugs in use were as follows: calcium
antagonists 26.2% (nifedipine 16.2%), beta-blockers (8.7%), ARB (3.6%), diuretics (2.7%), and
ACE inhibitors (1.6%), the others including Chinese traditional medicine (65.4%). Some patients
used more than one medication. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in Chengdu has
increased substantially along with other risk factors. There are unacceptably low awareness,
treatment, and control rates in population of community. There is a clear need for greater Are There Etiologic and Outcome Differences among Very Young Asian
efforts to detect, treat and control hypertension in Chengdu, China.
Women with Coronary Artery Disease Following Percutaneous
Coronary Intervention?

The Hypertensive Prevalence by Classification
Angela Koh, Lok Man Choi, Ling Ling Sim, Terrance Chua, Tian Hai Koh, Jack Tan, Stanley
National Heart Centre (Singapore, Singapore) Background and Aim: In Singapore, one-quarter of deaths among women is related to
The Awareness, Treatment and Control Rate of Hypertensives
cardiovascular disease and women account for 41% of all cardiovascular-related deaths.
Previous reports have suggested that while acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in women occurs more commonly at an older age, it is not solely a disease of elderly women. It is not known if younger women with coronary artery disease (CAD) have unique risk factor profiles or outcome differences compared to older women with CAD. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the etiology of CAD among younger women below 40 years of age, and to examine whether outcome differences exist when compared to women above 40 years old.
Methods: We prospectively collected data on 2137 consecutive female patients with CAD who
underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 2002 and 2007. Baseline clinical
characteristics and patient follow up data were obtained from medical records or telephone Relationship Between Social Gradient and Risk of Cardiovascular Death in
follow-up. Primary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) of myocardial an Open Urban Population of Western Siberia
infarction (MI), repeat revascularization and all-cause death at six months, one year and two
years. Results: There were more ethnic Chinese (68%), compared to Malays (15%), Indians
Vadim Kuznetsov, Ekaterina Akimova, Georgiy Pushkarev, Valeriy Gafarov
(13%) and other races (4%) with a mean age of 65 years, SD 10. 32 (1.5%) were aged 40 years Tyumen Cardiology Center (Tyumen, Russian Federation) and below. Compared to older women, a family history of premature CAD and a personal historyof prior smoking were associated with CAD among the younger women [OR 4.38 95%CI Objective: To assess the relationship between nonconventional risk factors for coronary artery
1.93–9.91 pϭ0.002 (7% vs. 25%) and OR 2.63 95%CI 1.17–5.92 pϭ0.024 (11 vs. 25%)] disease and risk of cardiovascular death in urban population of Western Siberia. Methods: The
respectively. A proportion of young women had systemic lupus erythematosus (6%), end-stage epidemiological study was conducted in the open urban population of Tyumen aged 25– 64 renal failure (6%) or a history of thrombophilia (3%). Compared to the older women, a years using standard methods. During subsequent 12 years (from 1996 till 2008) cardiovas- significant proportion of young women presented for the first time with ST-elevation myocardial cular death rate was studied in male (795 subjects) and female (813 subjects) cohorts. Using infarction (STEMI) requiring acute PCI [OR 3.09 95%CI 1.37– 6.97 pϭ0.011 (9% vs. 25%)].
Cox proportional hazards model we estimated how social gradient (level of education, MACE event rates at six months, one year and two years were 1%, 2% and 1% respectively.
occupational and marital status) related to risk of cardiovascular death. Results: There were
There was no difference in overall outcome between the groups (9% vs. 7%, pϭ1.00).
recorded 85 (10.7%) and 33 (4.1%) deaths in men and women, respectively. Primary-educated Conclusion: In this multi-ethnic Asian population, smoking and family history of premature
men had a higher risk of cardiovascular death compared to men with higher education (hazard CAD is associated with premature CAD among young women in whom a significant proportion ratio (HR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3– 4.7; pϽ0.0050). In females risk of present for the first time with STEMI. Young women did not appear to have worse short-term cardiovascular death was also higher (HR 8.2 (95% CI 3.7–18.0; pϽ0.001) in the primary prognosis up to two years. Further studies are warranted to investigate the impact of educated subjects compared to those with secondary education. Risk of cardiovascular death non-traditional risk factors like lupus and hypercoagulable states on CAD in young women.


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