Microsoft word - directory of aging resources on the internet.doc
DIRECTORY OF AGEING RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET This directory lists many resources on aging that are available free of charge on the Internet. They have been selected in the belief they may be useful to decision-makers involved in policy development, program planning, and service delivery related to older persons. Many provide an international perspective; others have mainly a domestic, national audience, but contain content we thought adaptable to the situation of other countries. The directory is organized alphabetically by topic. A complete listing of the topics follows below. Within each topic, one or more of the following types of resources are provided: 1) general information; 2) evidence-based guidelines; 3) guidelines and best practices; 4) bibliographies; 5) databases; 6) clearinghouses; 7) training tools 8) electronic newsletters; and 9) electronic mailing lists. Some resources appear under more than one topic because they are so relevant to both. In a few cases, such as health, the topic has been broken up into separate categories—e.g., falls, health promotion, HIV/AIDs, etc.—because the topic is so large. Topics Active aging Advocacy Africa Age discrimination Aging in the Arab world Aging in general Alzheimer’s Disease/Dementia The Americas Asia/Pacific Caregivers Central and Eastern Europe Demography Development Developmental disabilities Dying/Palliative care Education Elder Abuse Emergency situations Employment Empowerment Europe Falls Gender Health Health promotion HIV/AIDS Human rights Impact of population aging Indicators Institutional care Intergenerational relations Isolation Latin America and the Caribbean Livable communities Living arrangements Long-term care Mainstreaming Mental health Nutrition Pensions/Social security Physical activity Poverty Retirement Rural aging Transportation Urban aging THE RESOURCES
ACTIVE AGING Active Ageing: A Policy Framework (WHO/NMH/NPH/02.8)8– whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_NMH_NPH_02.8.pdf This Policy Framework is intended to inform discussion and the formulation of action plans that promote healthy and active ageing. It was developed by WHO’s Ageing and Life Course Programme in 2002. The future of retirement: The new old age – Global report www.ageingforum.org/content/FutureOfReterimentProgramme2007.aspx Reports on a survey of 21,000 people aged 40 to 79 in 21 countries and territories regarding the contribution they are making to their families and society through their employment, volunteer and other activities. Produced by HSBC Insurance with the Oxford Institute of Ageing. RespectAbility – www.respectability.org/index.cfm Provides research and program models for overcoming organizational barriers to the civic engagement of persons 55 and older, as well as maximizing their involvement. A program of the National Council on the Aging, Inc. in the USA. Senior Corps - www.seniorcorps.gov/
Provides information about national volunteer programs for older Americans that are sponsored by the US Government. These include Foster Grandparents, Senior Companions, and RSVP. They have served as program models for other countries. A product of the Corporation for National and Community Service. Clearinghouses Civic Engagement Program – www.asaging.org/asav2/civiceng/index.cfm Provides information and resources on individual and collective actions through which older adults participate in activities of personal and public and personal concern that are both individually life enriching and socially beneficial to the community. Produced by the American Society on Aging. ADVOCACY Guidelines and best practices Advocacy with older people: Some practical suggestions – www.helpage.org/Resources/Manuals Designed to help communities and organizations explore ways of making older persons’ voices better heard in ways that are culturally appropriate and sustainable. Reissued by HelpAge International in 2007. AFRICA African Union policy framework and plan of action on ageing – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Policy document that commits African Union member states to design, implement, monitor and evaluate appropriate integrated national policies and programmes to meet the individual and collective needs of older people in Africa. Jointly published by the African Union and HelpAge International. Building blocks: Africa-wide briefing notes – supporting older carers (available in English, French and Portuguese – www.helpage.org/Resources/Manuals Explains why programs designed to support orphans and vulnerable children need to pay more attention to the needs of the older people who care for them. Produced by HelpAge International and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2004. Investing in Social Protection in Africa – www.helpage.org/News/Latestnews/GOsK Offers the key recommendations of a meeting led by the African Union and Help Age International focusing on "Investing in Social Protection in Africa,” April 28-30, 2008. Policy workshop on HIV/AIDS and Windhoek, Namibia – www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Meetings/hiv2830jan04.pdf Annex I: HIV/AIDS and family well-being in southern Africa: towards an analysis of policies and responsiveness – www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Meetings/hiv2830jan04a1.pdf
Includes recommendations for the development of a strategic policy framework to assist governments in Africa to strengthen the capacity of families and family networks to cope with HIV/AIDS. Sponsored by the United Nations, 28-30 January, 2004. Population Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa: Demographic Dimensions 2006 – www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p95-07-1.pdf Examines population aging by gender in 42 sub-Saharan countries, with a focus on the 50+, 60+ and 80+ age groups. Both tables and figures are provided with projections to 2050. A special section examines the impact of HIV/AIDS on population aging. Published by the U.S. National Institute on Aging and U.S. Census Bureau, June, 2007. Social cash transfers for Africa: A transformative agenda for the 21st century – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Reports on a three-day intergovernmental conference on social protection held in Livingstone, Zambia, 20-23 March 2006. This brought together more than a hundred ministers and senior representatives from 13 African governments with the aim of examining new ways to tackle poverty and promote the human rights of the poorest people in Africa. Published by HelpAge International in 2006.
Social security programs throughout the world: Africa, 2007 – www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2006-2007/ guide.html Updated on a biennial basis. Published by the US Social Security Administration. Summary of research findings on the nutritional status and risk factors for vulnerability of older people in Africa – www.helpage.org/Resources/Researchreports Highlights some of the key issues affecting the nutrition and health of older people. A compilation of summaries of reports and research surveys conducted by HelpAge International's Africa regional nutrition programme, in partnership with academic and training institutions in a number of African countries. Prepared by HelpAge International’s Africa Regional Centre in 2004. Guidelines and best practices Addressing older people's rights in Africa: Good practice guidelines – www.helpage.org/Resources/Manuals Designed to provide guidance for people working with older people and those involved in human rights issues. Produced by HelpAge International. Electronic newsletters Ageing in Africa – www.helpage.org/Resources/Regionalnewsletters Highlights the issues affecting older people in Africa and provides updates on HelpAge International's regional activities. Produced three times a year by HelpAge International. AGE DISCRIMINATION Action against discrimination, civil society – ec.europa.eu/employment_social/fundamental_rights/index_en.htm Produced by the European Union. Equal treatment, equal rights: Ten actions to end age discrimination – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Draws on consultations with older people from the developing world and transitional economies to set out 10 concrete actions to ensure that older people across the world benefit from the full range of internationally accepted human rights. Produced by HelpAge International. The Rights of Older Persons: A Collection of International Documents www.ifa-fiv.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=73&Itemid=100 Contains full text of age discrimination legislation. Produced by the International Federation on Ageing (IFA). Cost: $28 + postage. Training tools Combating discrimination: A Training Manual – ec.europa.eu/employment_social/fundamental_rights/pdf/civil/train_en.pdf Developed to provide training on European and national anti-discrimination law and policy to non-governmental organizations in the 10 new Member States and in Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey. Does not deal exclusively with age discrimination. Available in the languages of member states. Produced for the European Union in 2006. AGING IN GENERAL Global aging: The challenge of success – www.eldis.org/static/DOC17927.htm Authors: Kevin Kinsella and David R. Phillips; Publisher: Population Bulletin, March 2005. Databases AgeLine Database – www.aarp.org/research/ageline/ A database that provides detailed summaries of more than 90,000 publications about aging and the 50+ population, mainly in North America, but also includes considerable coverage of other countries. Produced by AARP. AgeSourceWorldwide – www.aarpinternational.org/database/ A database that provides descriptions of and links to almost 400 information resources in 25 countries, which are significant either in size or in their coverage of aging issues. Most have some Internet presence, and a growing number facilitate end-user searching through the Internet. The following types of resources are included: clearinghouses, databases, libraries, directories, statistical resources, bibliographies and reading lists, reports, and Web “metasites”. Produced by AARP. AgeStatsWorldwide – www.aarpinternational.org/database/
Provides access to comparative statistical data that compare the situation of older adults across countries or regions around a variety of issues areas. The most recent data and projections as far ahead as 2050 are provided where available. Produced by AARP. Resource Library of AARP International – www.aarpinternational.org/resourcelibrary/ A searchable database of links to AARP and external documents related to aging issues around the world. Economic security, health and long-term care, and livable communities are emphasized. Produced by AARP. Evidence Database of the Social Work Leadership Institute (SWLI) – socialworkleadership.org/nsw/cap/ebp.php Created to help scholars, policy analysts, and advocates stay on top of the latest research and innovations in aging care, including health care, social services, and workforce issues. Brief citations are provided. Regularly updated by an advisory panel that filters, reviews, and catalogues articles published in professional journals from around the world. Internet Resources on Aging – www.aarp.org/internetresources/ A database that provides links to some of the best Internet sites for persons 50 and older in the United States. Also includes a number of international links. Produced by AARP. Public Policy Clearinghouse of the Social Work Leadership Institute (SWLI) – socialworkleadership.org/nsw/cap/ch.php Provides a wide range of materials about aging, social work and public policies gleaned from government agencies, non-government organizations, think-tanks, news media and other sources of information. Results are presented in brief or full formats, with links to full text where appropriate. Clearinghouses Aging Everywhere: World Facts on the 50+ – www.aarp.org/international/map An international clearinghouse of information on aging populations worldwide. Updated regularly with newly published regional and country specific research, reports, and resources. Produced by AARP. Eldis Ageing Populations Resource Guide – www.eldis.org/ageing/index.htm Provides links to several hundred documents related to aging, as well as related Web sites. A resource of the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex, UK. Electronic Newsletters AARP International News – www.aarpinternational.org/news/ Provides information from sources around the world on issues related to population aging. Produced by AARP. Global Action on Aging – www.globalaging.org/quickgo.htm
Weekly newsletter with emphasis on pensions, health, armed conflict and emergency situations, and rural aging. Articles available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. ILC Policy Report – www.ilcusa.org/pages/newsroom/newsletters.php A monthly compilation of longevity news and trends in the U.S. and abroad. Produced by the International Longevity Center, USA. AGING IN THE ARAB WORLD Ageing in the Arab Countries: Regional Variations, Policies and Programmes – (E/ESCWA/SDD/2004/WG.1/2) www.escwa.un.org/information/publications/sdd/docs/04-wg-1-2.pdf Examines demographic trends in aging and its socio-economic consequences. Published by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, 2004. The Arab plan of action on ageing to the year 2012 – www.escwa.org.lb/information/publications/edit/upload/sd-02-01.pdf This plan was produced in 2002 in anticipation of the upcoming UN World Assembly on Ageing. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE/DEMENTIA The growing challenge of Alzheimer's Disease in residential settings – www.nia.nih.gov/Alzheimers/Publications/GrowingChallenge/ Designed to give helpful information about Alzheimer's Disease to staff and managers of retirement communities, senior housing developments, assisted living facilities, and case coordination agencies. Intended for use by staff developers and others involved in offering in-service training programs about issues related to older persons living in residential communities. Published by the Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center in the USA. Evidence-based guidelines Dementia: Supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care - www.nice.org.uk/Guidance/CG42 This NICE clinical guideline makes recommendations for the identification, treatment and care of people with dementia and the support of carers. The guideline covers Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia and mixed dementias. Recommendations from NICE's technology appraisal of donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine for treating Alzheimer's Disease are also included. Published in 2006. Management of patients with dementia: A national clinical guideline – www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign86.pdf Examines evidence relating to all aspects of the diagnosis and management of people with dementia, including the role of complex psychological assessment, drug treatment,
techniques such as reality orientation and interventions for behavioral and psychological problems which develop later in the course of the disease. The guideline also covers evidence looking at how patients and carers are best kept informed of the changes in the patient's condition. Appendices contain diagnostic and assessment tools. Developed by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Guidelines and best practices Not mad, not bad: A guide to dementia and behaviours that challenge for staff working in various care settings - 220.127.116.11/upload/not%20mad%20or%20bad.pdf Guide for British nursing and care staff in the care of people with dementia and coping with the behaviors that patients can present with in care settings. Created by a collaborative group of senior nurses undertaking the Accelerated Leadership Programme for Modern Matrons working in Older People Services in London, England. "Quality dementia care" papers - www.alzheimers.org.au/content.cfm?topicid=351 A series of papers designed to improve the quality of care for dementia patients living at home or in institutional forms of care. All are downloadable as PDF documents. The titles include: Quality Dementia Care; Practice in Residential Aged Care Facilities for all Staff; Nurturing the Heart: Creativity, Art Therapy & Dementia; A Guide to Practice for Managers in Residential Aged Care Facilities; and Understanding Younger Onset Dementia. Produced by Alzheimer's Australia. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's Disease and other dementias of late life – www.psychiatryonline.com/content.aspx?aid=152139 Summarizes data to inform the care of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (referred to here as Alzheimer's disease) and other dementias associated with aging, including vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease, and Pick's and other frontal lobe dementias. Published by the American Psychological Association in 2007. Bibliographies Social & behavioral research on Alzheimer's Disease and dementia in diverse populations: A bibliography – www.aging.unc.edu/cad/bibliography/index.html Offers a comprehensive snapshot of the social and behavioral research related to Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in all areas of the world. Produced by the University of North Carolina Institute on Aging Information Center. Updated in 2007. Clearinghouses Alzheimer's Disease Education & Referral Center (ADEAR) – www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers Compiles, archives and disseminates information concerning Alzheimer's Disease. A bibliographic database is available at: www.nia.nih.gov/Alzheimers/Resources/SearchHealthLiterature/
offering a collection of 8,500 health education and information materials related to Alzheimer's disease. Sponsored by the US National Institute on Aging. AoA's Alzheimer's Resource Room - www.aoa.gov/eldfam/eldfam.aspx Provides information about Alzheimer's disease, caregiving, and working with and providing services to persons with Alzheimer's for families, caregivers, and professionals. The Alzheimer’s Disease Demonstration Grants to States (ADDGS) National Resource Center shares practices, supported by research, that are effective in serving people with Alzheimer’s disease and their families, as well as promotes the integration of “lessons learned” from grantees’ experiences into ongoing practice though case studies of successful programs. The ADDGS also compiles relevant tools and information from across all ADDGS grant sites. Developed by the US Administration on Aging. Alzheimer Europe – www.alzheimer-europe.org Provides information about different types of dementia, tips for caregivers, and European-wide action on dementia. Training tools Demystifying dementia care: Education package – www.accreditation.org.au/DemystifyingDementia Designed to equip staff in institutional/residential care with the skills and knowledge needed to provide care and support for residents who have dementia. Produced by the Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency Ltd. in the USA. Geriatric Mental Health Training Series www.nursing.uiowa.edu/hartford/nurse/core.htm Among the training modules offered are: "Dementia, Parts I and II," which reviews various types of dementia, particularly Alzheimer's Disease, and offers specific intervention strategies and communication techniques. The "ABC" module provides a problem-solving approach for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. All modules contain a detailed lecturer's script, notes for instructors, slides, handouts, and suggestions for additional reading. These modules were developed for the Hartford Center of Geriatric Nursing Excellence in order to encourage personal development and staff training activities. Knowledge and skills needed for dementia care: a guide for direct care workers – www.dementiacoalition.org/pdfs/knowledgeandskills_dementiacare.pdf Identifies the special care assistance skills that are important when working with a person with dementia in order to improve the quality of care. Competency areas covered are: knowledge of dementia disorders; person-centered care; care interactions; enriching the person's life; understanding behaviors; interacting with families; direct care worker self care. Produced by the Dementia Program of the Michigan Public Health Institute in the USA. THE AMERICAS Aging in the Americas into the XXI Century: A Wall Chart (available in English and Spanish) – www.census.gov/ipc/www/agingam.html Provides demographic data and projections for the 65+ population in the Americas for 1997 and 2025. A joint product of PAHO/WHO, the US National Institute on Aging, and the US Bureau of the Census, 1998. Social security programs throughout the world: The Americas, 2007 – www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2006-2007/americas/index.html Updated biennially, this report provides descriptions of each nation’s social security system. Published by the US Social Security Administration. ASIA/PACIFIC Access to Social services by the poor and disadvantaged in Asia and the Pacific: Major trends and issues (ST/ESCAP/2240) – www.unescap.org/esid/psis/publications/spps/11/SPP11.pdf Provides an overview of social services in Asia and the Pacific, focusing on the analysis of access to social services by the poor and disadvantaged groups as target users. Discusses the need for social services, barriers to access to services, the quality, delivery and financing of services in the region. Published by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and The Pacific, 2002. The Macao Outcome Document – www.unescap.org/esid/psis/meetings/ageingmipaa2007/MacaoOutcomeDocument.pdf This document is the culmination of the regional Asia/Pacific conference that took place in Macao in October 2007 to review progress to date on the implementation of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing and make recommendations for the future. Produced by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Population aging in East and Southeast Asia – cst.bangkok.unfpa.org/ Provides links to ten full-text reports on population aging in the countries of this region. Published by the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team for East and Southeast Asia. (site not accessible as of 3/31/08) Primary Healthcare for Older People: A Participatory Study in 5 Asian Countries (April 2008) - www.globalaging.org/health/world/2008/healthcare.pdf Analyzes the health care services for older persons in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Singapore and Vietnam. Provides recommendations for governments, as well as reports of best practices. Researchers point toward the urgent need to set up some health care system to serve older people and others, especially in rural areas.
Shanghai Implementation Strategy – www.unescap.org/esid/psis/ageing/strategy/index.asp The Asia/Pacific implementation strategy developed for the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing 2002 and the Macao Plan of Action on Ageing for Asia and the Pacific 1999. Published by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2003.
Social cash transfers for Asia: Ensuring social protection/social pensions in old age in the context of rapid ageing – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Report of a three-day intergovernmental seminar on social protection held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 29-31 January 2007. Published by HelpAge International in 2007. Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2008 – www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2008-2009/asia/index.html Updated on a biennial basis, this report provides descriptions of each nation’s social security system. Published by the US Social Security Administration. Electronic newsletters AgeNews Asia/Pacific – www.helpage.org/Resources/Regularpublications Raises awareness of the contributions, needs and rights of older people in Asia and the Pacific, and highlights HelpAge International's activities within the region. Produced four times a year by HelpAge International. CAREGIVERS Building blocks: Africa-wide briefing notes – supporting older carers (available in English, French and Portuguese – www.helpage.org/Resources/Manuals Explains why programs designed to support orphans and vulnerable children need to pay more attention to the needs of the older people who care for them. Produced by HelpAge International and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2004. Consumer direction and choice in long-term care for older persons, including payments for informal care – www.oecd.org/dataoecd/53/62/34897775.pdf Reports the detailed results of research on choice carried out as part of the long-term care study under the OECD Health Project, which was later published under the title “Long- term care policies for older people.” Author: J. Lundsgaard; Publisher: OECD, 2005. The road to recognition: International review of public policies to support family and informal caregiving – www.caregiver.org/caregiver/jsp/content_node.jsp?nodeid=1011 Authors: Anne Montgomery and Lynn Friss Feinberg; Publisher: Family Caregiver Alliance, September 2003. Forgotten families: older people as carers for orphans and vulnerable children – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Describes case studies of innovative ways of dealing with some of the difficulties faced by older-headed households that appropriate technical support minimal additional resources can have. Produced by HelpAge International and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance. Training tools Caregivers count too! A toolkit help practitioners assess the needs of family caregivers – caregiver.org/caregiver/jsp/content_node.jsp?nodeid=1695 Designed for program administrators and practitioners to sharpen awareness of family caregivers as an at-risk population in need of assessment to determine their own physical, emotional and financial problems, and to provide practical tools for conducting such assessments. Developed by the Family Caregiver Alliance in the USA. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE A generation in transition: Older people's situation and civil society's response in East and Central Europe – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Draws on consultations with older people to provide principles and case studies for responding to their needs. Published in 2002 by HelpAge International. I like the age I am: Empowering disadvantaged older people to combat discrimination in South East Europe – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Describes program to address the exclusion and discrimination of older people in countries of southeastern Europe, the global and regional context of its objectives, and lessons learnt and recommendations for action. Published by HelpAge International. DEMOGRAPHY Human Lifetable Database (HLD) – www.lifetable.de/ A collection of population life tables covering a multitude of countries and many years. Most of the HLD life tables are life tables for national populations, which have been officially published by national statistical offices. Some of the HLD life tables refer to certain regional or ethnic sub-populations within countries. Human Mortality Database (HMD) – www.mortality.org/ Provides detailed mortality and population data to researchers, students, journalists, policy analysts, and others interested in the history of human longevity. HMD contains detailed data for some 30 countries or areas. HMD is limited to populations where death registration and census data are virtually complete; hence, the countries and areas included are relatively wealthy. Population Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa: Demographic Dimensions 2006 – www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p95-07-1.pdf Examines population aging by gender in 42 sub-Saharan countries, with a focus on the 50+, 60+ and 80+ age groups. Both tables and figures are provided with projections to 2050. A special section examines the impact of HIV/AIDS on population aging. Published by the U.S. National Institute on Aging and U.S. Census Bureau, June, 2007. World population ageing: 1950-2050 – www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldageing19502050/ Produced by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs. World Population Ageing 2007 – www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPA2007/wpp2007.htm Analyses the implications of population aging for social and economic development around the world. Much data is provided in the form of figures and tables. Only tables and the executive summary can be downloaded from the Internet; the full report can be purchased through the UN Publications office--Sales Number: 07.II.C.1 P. Produced by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. World population monitoring, focusing on the changing age structures of populations and their implications for development: Report of the Secretary- General (E/CN.9/2007/3) (available in all UN languages) – daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/212/85/PDF/N0721285.pdf?OpenElement Prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2007. World population prospects, the 2008 revision – www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf Provides considerable statistical data on population aging around the world. Produced by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Databases International Data Base – www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/ Provides a variety of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics for most countries of the world plus selected territories, broken down by sex and age. Summary or detailed data is available from as early as 1950 to projections as late as 2050. In addition, static or "active" population pyramids are available. Users can aggregate selected countries into chosen regions. Countries can be ranked by population for any year from 1950-2050. Download options are available. Produced by the US Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce) DEVELOPMENT The ageing and development report (summary available in English, French and Spanish) – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Reports on the circumstances of older people in developing countries and countries in transition, with chapters on economic security, health, family and community life, poverty, gender and emergencies. Includes information on demographic trends and ageing in specific countries and regions. Summary available online. Summary report available free of charge. Full report available for sale. Published by HelpAge International. Electronic newsletters Ageing and Development – www.helpage.org/Resources/Regularpublications
News and analysis highlighting aging as a mainstream development issue. Published twice a year for policy makers, program planners and researchers concerned with development and poverty reduction. A publication of HelpAge International. Ageways – www.helpage.org/Resources/Regularpublications Exchanges practical information on aging and development, particularly good practice developed in the HelpAge International network. Published twice a year for carers, older people's groups, and staff of HelpAge International. A publication of HelpAge International. DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES Clearinghouses Clearinghouse on Aging with Developmental Disabilities – www.uic.edu/orgs/rrtcamr/clearinghouse.htm Designed to provide information on the latest research, model programs, and policy issues pertaining to this population. Offers books/monographs, journal articles, videotapes, and CDs related to aging and developmental disabilities. Describes training and technical assistance opportunities. Sponsored by the University of Illinois' Rehabilitation and Training Center on Aging with Developmental Disabilities in the USA. DYING/PALLIATIVE CARE Canadian Virtual Hospice – www.virtualhospice.ca/ An online community that provides information and support for physical, emotional and spiritual concerns related to death and dying. Separate sections are directed to the dying, family and friends, health care providers, and volunteers. Produced by the Canadian Virtual Hospice in Canada. Guidelines and best practices Clinical practice guidelines for quality palliative care – www.nationalconsensusproject.org/Guideline.pdf Developed by five major US palliative care organizations, the Guidelines describe core precepts and structures of clinical palliative care programs. The following aspects are included: structure and process of care; physical; psychological and psychiatric; social; spiritual, religious, and existential; cultural; care of the imminently dying person; and ethics and law. Introductory guide to end of life care – eolc.cbcl.co.uk/eolc/eolcpublications/Guide%20To%20EoLC%20care%20homes%20lo.p df Designed for care home managers and staff interested in improving care of residents in the final stages of life. Provides definitions of terms used in end of life care, case studies of residents, and examples of best practices in palliative care in care homes. Published by Britain's National Health Service in cooperation with the National Council for Palliative Care.
Clearinghouses Palliative Dementia Care Resources –www.pdcronline.com/index.php Seeks to raise public and professional awareness around palliative care needs facing individuals with advanced dementia and their caregivers. It guides family caregivers and professionals to relevant news and information on topics such as managing life's changes, preparing for life's end, and coping with grief and loss. Links are provided to topics such as end stage dementia care, end of life care in the nursing home, ethical issues, family caregivers' support, pain management tools, and advance care planning. Created by Polisher Research Institute at the Madlyn and Leonard Abramson Center for Jewish Life. EDUCATION Databases ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) – www.eric.ed.gov Provides searchable, Internet-based bibliographic and full-text database of education research and information from around the world, dating from 1966. The collection includes thousands of citations related to older persons drawn from journal articles, books, research syntheses, conferences, technical reports, policy papers, and other education-related materials. ELDER ABUSE Missing voices: views of older persons on elder abuse – whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_NMH_VIP_02.1.pdf Drawn from a series of focus groups held in Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, India, Kenya, Lebanon and Sweden. Prepared for the World Health Organization, 2002. Summary of Gender Aspects of Violence and Abuse of Older Persons – www.un-instraw.org/en/docs/ageing/AgeNet_Summary.pdf As a contribution to the Second World Assembly on Ageing, INSTRAW conducted an on-line discussion forum (15-26 April 2002) on the subject of women and elder abuse. Clearinghouses Clearinghouse on Abuse & Neglect of the Elderly (CANE) – www.cane.udel.edu Probably the largest computerized collection of elder abuse resources and materials in the world. Database can be searched database to obtain references pertaining to the many aspects of elder abuse and neglect, and the conditions that impact upon elder mistreatment. Maintained at the Department of Consumer Studies at the University of Delaware in the USA. Training tools Abuse education, prevention and response: A community training manual for those who want to address the issue of the abuse of older adults in their community – www.advocacycentreelderly.org/elder/pubs.htm
Provides a framework to focus thinking on how members of a community can come together to prevent the abuse of older adults and how to respond when abuse occurs. Authors: Joanne Preston and Judith Wahl; Publisher: Advocacy Centre for the Elderly in Canada. EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Guidelines and best practices Addressing the nutritional needs of older people in emergency situations in Africa: Ideas for action – www.helpage.org/Resources/Manuals Highlights some of the key issues affecting the nutrition of older people in emergencies and suggests ways in which their rights and needs can be more effectively addressed. Published by HelpAge International in 2001. Older people in disasters and humanitarian crises: Guidelines for best practice participatory research with older people (available in English and Spanish) – www.helpage.org/Resources/Manuals Aims to help relief agencies meet the special needs of older people in emergencies in developing countries. Produced by HelpAge International. Older people’s associations in community disaster risk reduction – www.helpage.org/Resources/Manuals Highlights good practice in utilizing Older People's Associations for community-based disaster risk reduction. Produced by HelpAge International in 2007. Operation Emergency Prepare – assets.aarp.org/www.aarp.org_/articles/ctg/ARPCOR9011OEPindividual050109.pdf Provides easily understood instructions for helping older persons to prepare for any emergencies or disasters that might demand evacuation or confinement to the home. A Group Organizer’s Toolkit is also available at: assets.aarp.org/www.aarp.org_/articles/ctg/ARPCOR9011OEPgroup050109.pdf which permits the organization of groups within which to reach out to elders. Produced by AARP. EMPLOYMENT Ageing and labour markets for older workers – www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/publ/etp33.htm Discusses age discrimination in the labour force against older persons and reviews sound practices for promoting their employment. Author: Alexander Samorodov; Publisher: ILO, 1999. Live longer, work longer: A synthesis report – www.oecd.org/document/42/0,3343,en_2649_34747_36104426_1_1_1_1,00.html A synthesis of the findings of country reports from 21 OECD member countries, analyzing incentives and disincentives to older worker employment, and measures that
need to be taken to improve their employability. Executive summaries for each country available on line free of charge. Entire report must be purchased. Published by the OECD, February 2006. The new agenda for an older workforce and older worker recruiting: Survey results and white paper – www.ca.manpower.com/cacom/contentSingle.jsp?articleid=282 Reports findings of a survey of 28,000 employers across 25 countries and territories. Published in April 2007 by Manpower, Inc. Older workers: policies of other nations to increase labor force participation – www.gao.gov/new.items/d03307.pdf Examines policies in Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Produced by the US General Accounting Office in 2003. Promoting longer working lives through better social protection systems – ec.europa.eu/employment_social/social_protection/docs/working_longer_en.pdf Discusses the adaptations that are required in many social protection systems within the European Union (EU) to make it worthwhile for older workers to stay on the labor market. Produced by the EU. Guidelines and best practices AARP Workforce Assessment Tool – www.aarpworkforceassessment.org/ Free tool designed to help organizations assess their current and future workforce needs, as well as any impact population ageing may have. A report that is generated will provide recommendations on how to create an "age-friendly" workplace that appeals to all workers. Produced by AARP in the USA. Age positive good practice standards – www.agepositive.gov.uk/good_practice/index.asp Provides good practice standards to help employers recognize the business benefits of an age-diverse workforce. The standards cover six areas of employment: recruitment, selection, promotion, training and development, redundancy, and retirement. Case studies are also provided on how companies have successfully tackled these issues. Provided by Britain's Department for Work and Pensions. A guide to good practice in age management – www.eurofound.eu.int/publications/htmlfiles/ef05137.htm Reviews case studies from a range of organizations across the European Union that have instituted good practices in recruiting, supporting and retaining older workers. Authors: Gerhard Naegele and Alan Walker; Publisher: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Published May, 2006. Combating age barriers in employment: a European portfolio of good practice – www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef9719.htm
Provides illustration and analysis of more than 150 initiatives in Europe in favor of the retention, retraining and reintegration of older workers. Authors: Alan Walker and Philip Taylor; Publisher: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Training tools Employer resource center – www.aarp.org/employerresourcecenter/ Offers practical information to employers on many issues concerning the hiring and retention of older workers in the United States so that they are and prepared to face the aging of their labor force. Topics addressed include: age discrimination, recruitment and retention strategies, benefits for working caregivers, phased or flexible retirement, workforce trends, workplace law, and brief program descriptions of employers who have implemented successful older worker programs. Publications can be ordered free of charge or are downloadable. Produced by AARP in the USA. EMPOWERMENT A generation in transition: Older people's situation and civil society's response in East and Central Europe – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Draws on consultations with older people to provide principles and case studies for responding to their needs. Published in 2002 by HelpAge International. I like the age I am: Empowering disadvantaged older people to combat discrimination in South East Europe – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Describes program to address the exclusion and discrimination of older people in countries of southeastern Europe, the global and regional context of its objectives, and lessons learnt and recommendations for action. Published by HelpAge International. Guidelines and best practices Participatory research with older people: A sourcebook – www.helpage.org/Resources/Manuals Provides comprehensive guidelines for older people's participation in planning, carrying out and disseminating research. Published by HelpAge International in 2002.
EUROPE Healthy ageing: keystone for a sustainable Europe – ec.europa.eu/health/ph_information/indicators/docs/healthy_ageing_en.pdf Examines current trends in life expectancy, how they relate to healthy life years, and what this could mean for European Union (EU) now and in the future Member States. Produced by the EU, 2007. Regional implementation strategy for the Madrid International Plan of Action of Ageing – www.unece.org/pau/age/berlin2002/docs/berl_ris_rev_e.pdf Text of European strategy developed in 2002 to implement the Madrid International Plan of Action of Ageing. Published by the UN Economic Commission for Europe.
Report of the UNECE Ministerial Conference on Ageing (ECE/AC.30/2007/2) – www.unece.org/pau/age/ConferenceonAgeing_2007/Leon_Meeting_Report_AdvCopy.p df Includes the European Ministers’ Declaration and a summary of the conference that was held in Leon, Spain in early November, 2007 to review progress on implementing the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing. Produced by the Economic Commission for Europe. Social security programs throughout the world: Europe, 2006 – www.socialsecurity.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2006-2007/europe/index.html Updated on a biennial basis, this report provides summaries of each country’s social security system. Published by the US Social Security Administration. Electronic newsletters CoverAge – www.age-platform.org/EN/spip.php?article99 The monthly newsletter of AGE, the European Older People’s Platform, a coalition of European NGOs who lobby actively with the European Union. The newsletter provides updates on EU policy initiatives and actions. The newsletter is available in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Polish. Electronic discussion lists Ageing in Europe – www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?SUBED1=ageing&A=1 An electronic mailing list that announces research programs and results and announces conferences and training programs. FALLS Evidence-based guidelines Assessment and prevention of falls in older people: Clinical guideline 21 – www.nice.org.uk/page.aspx?o=CG021NICEGuideline Guideline identifies older people at risk of falls, addresses multifactoral falls risk assessments and interventions, and discusses the participation of older people in prevention programs. Developed by the UK’s National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Guidelines and best practices Queensland Stay On Your Feet® Community Good Practice Toolkit www.health.qld.gov.au/stayonyourfeet/toolkit/default.asp Provides easy access to current evidence-based information about falls prevention and healthy active aging strategies for health professionals and community organizations to use in their workplace, organization and the community. The Toolkit is designed for anyone who works with older people, including individuals, organisations, health professionals and government departments. A CD version of the Toolkit is also available for people who work with older people in the community, but have limited or no access to the Internet. Produced by the Queensland Health department. WHO Global Report on Falls Prevention in Old Age – www.who.int/ageing/publications/Falls_prevention7March.pdf Published in 2007, this global report is the product of the conclusions reached and recommendations made at the WHO Technical Meeting on Falls Prevention in Older Age which took place in Victoria, Canada in February 2007. It includes international and regional perspectives on falls prevention issues and strategies and is based on a series of background papers that were prepared by worldwide recognized experts. Published in 2007 by the World Health Organization. Clearinghouses Stopfalls.org– www.stopfalls.org Identifies best practices in fall prevention and helps communities offer fall prevention programs to older persons who are at risk of falling. Targeted audiences are service providers, individuals and families, and researchers and educators. Maintained by the Fall Prevention Center of Excellence of the University of Southern California Andrus Gerontology Center in the USA. Preventing Falls: How to Develop Community-based Fall Prevention Programs for Older Adults - www.cdc.gov/ncipc/preventingfalls/ Provides guidelines on program planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of falls prevention programs. Program components described in the guide include the following: education; exercise programs; medication management; vision checking and improvement; and home hazard assessment and modification. A publication of the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States; published in 2008. Preventing Falls: What Works A CDC Compendium of Effective Community-based Interventions from Around the World www.cdc.gov/ncipc/preventingfalls/ Describes 14 scientifically tested and proven interventions, and provides relevant details about these interventions for organizations who want to implement fall prevention programs. The interventions are grouped into three categories: 1) exercise-based, 2) home modification, and 3) multifaceted. A publication of the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States; published in 2008. GENDER Gender and Ageing – www.eldis.org/go/topics/resource-guides/ageing-populations/gender-and-ageing Provides links to papers, reports and briefings related to older women around the world. Produced by ELDIS, a program of the University of Sussex, UK. Gender dimensions of ageing– www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/public/ageing-final.pdf
Published in 2002 by the UN Division for the Advancement of Women. Men, ageing and health: achieving health across the life span (01WHO/NMH/ NPH 01.2) – whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2001/WHO_NMH_NPH_01.2.pdf Examines the determinants of older men’s health and proposes a framework and strategies for action. Published in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO). The Situation of Elderly Women: Available Statistics and Indicators – www.un-instraw.org/en/docs/ageing/Elderly_Women.pdf Describes the changing status and role of elderly women in countries around the world. Developed in the early 1990s, but includes projections for the future. Published by the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) Women, ageing and health: achieving health across the life span (WHO/HPR/AHE/HPD/96.1) – whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1996/WHO_HPR_AHE_HPD_96.1_2nd_ed.pdf Examines the determinants of older women’s health and proposes a framework and strategies for action. Published in 1998 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Women, Ageing and Health: A Framework for Action – www.unfpa.org/publications/detail.cfm?ID=327&filterListType Provides guidance on how policy-makers, practitioners, nongovernmental organizations and civil society can improve the health and wellbeing of aging women by simultaneously applying both a gender and an aging lens in their policies, programs and practices, as well as in research. A full review of the evidence is available in a longer complementary document entitled Women, Ageing and Health: A Review, available in hard copy and online at http://www.who.int/ageing/en/ Published by WHO and UNFPA in 2007. Women’s Life Cycle and Ageing – INSTRAW News 29 – www.un-instraw.org/en/docs/publications/INews_29.pdf This special issue of the INSTRAW newsletter is devoted to examining aging within the total life cycle. Published by the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) as a contribution to the 1999 International Year of Older Persons.
HEALTH Age-friendly Primary Health Care (PHC) Centres Toolkit– www.who.int/ageing/publications/upcoming_publications/en/index.html The toolkit comprises a number of instruments (evaluation forms, slides, figures, graphs, diagrams, scale tables, country guidelines, exam sheets, screening tools, cards, checklists, etc.) that can be used by primary health care workers to assess and address older persons' health. These resources are meant to supplement and not to replace local and national materials and guidelines. Published by the World Health Organization, 2008. Health financing revisited: a practitioner'sguide – web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTHEALTHNUTRITIONANDP OPULATION/EXTHSD/0,,contentMDK:20200211~menuPK:376811~pagePK:148956~ piPK:216618~theSitePK:376793,00.html Addresses the major changes in global health and financing policy that have occurred over the past 10 years. Published by the World Bank in 2006. Authors: Pablo Gottret and George Schieber. Integrated chronic disease prevention and control – www.who.int/chp/about/integrated_cd/en/print.html Argues for the development of integrated chronic disease prevention and control programs and provides case studies. Produced by the World Health Organization, 2006. Public Policy and the Challenge of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases – http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPH/Resources/PublicPolicyandNCDsWorldBank2 007FullReport.pdf Contains an agenda for action in response to the growing economic, social, and health problems posed by chronic non-communicable diseases. Produced by the World Bank, 2007. Stanford Health Library's Diseases and Disorders > Senior Health healthlibrary.stanford.edu/resources/bodysystems/senior_intro.html#healthtopics Provides scientifically-based medical information and health education that help individuals and families make informed decisions about their health and health care. The seniors' health section provides an extensive directory of resource links available on the Internet related to health concerns of older persons. A product of Stanford University in the USA. Evidence-based guidelines A guide to resources on evidence-based geriatrics – myuminfo.umanitoba.ca/Documents/713/evidencebasedgeriatrics.pdf An introduction to resources on evidence-based geriatrics practice freely available on the Internet. Provides reading lists, descriptions of databases, and links to relevant Internet sites. Compiled by Laurie Blanchard at the J.W. Crane Memorial Library in Canada. Best practice, evidence-based guidelines related to older people www.nzgg.org.nz/index.cfm?fuseaction=fuseaction_10&fusesubacaction=docs&docume ntid=22 Provides evidence-based recommendations for appropriate and effective care for the conditions from which older people most suffer. They draw upon experience in New Zealand and other countries. Current titles related to aging include:
• Prevention of Hip Fracture Amongst People Aged 65 Years and Over; • Acute Management and Immediate Rehabilitation after Hip Fracture Amongst
• Assessment Processes for Older People;
• Life after Stroke: New Zealand Guideline for Management of Stroke; • Guidelines for the Support and Management of People with Dementia • Population Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review; • A Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: Health Professionals Guide
Developed by the New Zealand Guidelines Group. ConsultGeriRN.org – ConsultGeriRN.org A comprehensive Web site providing current best practice information on care of older adults. Among the resources provided are evidence-based protocols for managing 27 common geriatric syndromes and conditions, a series of nursing assessment tools; information about best practice models in hospitals; and links to recommended baccalaureate competencies and curriculum guidelines for geriatric nursing care. Hosted by the Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing. Evidence-based practice guidelines – www.nursing.uiowa.edu/consumers_patients/evidence_based.htm The University of Iowa's Gerontological Nursing Interventions Research Center (GNIRC) provides about 40 evidence-based nursing practice protocols at nominal cost. Among the topics covered are: Advance directives; Alzheimer’s Disease; bereavement; constipation; delirium; dementia; depression; drug abuse; elder abuse; exercise; falls prevention; incontinence; long term care; nursing; oral health; oral hydration; pain management; pets; pressure sores; spiritual well being; and suicide. Evidence reports from the European region of the World Health Organization – www.euro.who.int/HEN/Syntheses/20030820_1?language=?language=?language= WHO’s Health Evidence Network (HEN) provides answers to policy questions in the form of evidence-based reports and summaries, and easy access to evidence and information from a number of Web sites, databases and documents that focus on older persons. Those dealing with aging are: . What evidence is there for the prevention and screening of osteoporosis? · Are disease management programmes (DMPs) effective in improving quality of care for people with chronic conditions? · Do current discharge arrangements from inpatient hospital care for the elderly reduce readmission rates, the length of inpatient stay or mortality, or improve health status? · How can injuries in children and older people be prevented? · What are the palliative care needs of older people and how might they be met? · What is the effectiveness of old-age mental health services? · What is the effectiveness of home visiting or home-based support for older people? · What are the main risk factors for falls amongst older people and what are the most effective interventions to prevent these falls? . How can injuries in children and older people be prevented? · What are the main risk factors for disability in old age and how can disability be prevented? · What evidence is there for the prevention and screening of osteoporosis? National guideline clearinghouse (NGC) – www.guidelines.gov Provides a comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents from around the world. Almost 300 of the database's entries relate to the elderly. Among the topics covered are: advance directives; Alzheimer’s Disease; arthritis; assessment; bereavement; breast cancer; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; clinical practice guidelines; delirium; dementia; depression; discharge planning; diseases; falls; hip injuries; hypertension; incontinence; infection; menopause; nutrition; obesity; oral health; oral hydration; osteoporosis; pain; palliative care; Parkinson’s Disease; physical activity; pneumonia; prescription drugs; pressure sores; prostate disorders; rehabilitation; restraints; rheumatoid arthritis; sleep disorders; and suicide. Sponsored by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Working with dependent older people to achieve good oral health – www.nhshealthquality.org/nhsqis/files/21412%20NHSQIS%20Oral%20BPS.pdf Offers evidence-based nursing guidance for oral health care of dependent older people admitted to hospitals or living in residential care. Developed by the NHS Quality Improvement Scotland. Guidelines and best practices Healthy ageing profiles. Guidance for producing local health profiles for older people - www.euro.who.int/InformationSources/Publications/Catalogue/20081104_2 Demonstrates how a positive and dynamic profile of older people in cities can be produced using a mere 22 easily collected indicators. For each indicator, guidance is provided on the rationale and technique, with examples drown from the local profiles of member cities of the WHO European Healthy Cities Subnetwork on Healthy Ageing. Editors: Lena Kanstrom, Gianna Zamaro, Claes Sjostedt and Geoff Green Published by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2008. Medicare Quality Improvement Community (MedQIC) – www.medqic.org A national knowledge forum for healthcare and quality improvement professionals in the United States. Provides easy access to quality improvement resources for dozens of health topics of importance to older persons. Coverage is provided of health care issues that present themselves in physicians' offices, hospitals, nursing homes, and home care situations. Provided by the Federal Government’s Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in the United States. Nursing best practice guidelines – www.rnao.org/Page.asp?PageID=861&SiteNodeID=133 Provides several clinical practice guidelines and related material of use by the nursing profession in working with older persons. Topics include constipation; delirium; dementia; depression; diabetes; falls; foot care; incontinence; nursing; pain; and pressure sores. Produced by the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario. Oral Health Promotion Fact Sheets for Long-term Care – umanitoba.ca/dentistry/ccoh/ccoh_longTermCare.html
A collection of long-term care fact sheets developed as an integral component to mouth care training for caregivers. The factsheets are updated & revised on a regular basis, Developed by the University of Manitoba’s Centre for Community Oral Health (CCOH). Training tools Borun Center for Gerontological Research – borun.medsch.ucla.edu/ Provides six training modules developed by Center researchers on the topics of weight loss prevention, mobility decline prevention; pressure ulcer prevention; incontinence management; pain screening, and quality of life assessment. Modules are designed to provide easy-to-follow step by step instructions for assessment and interventions. They provide learning objectives, a discussion of the issues, and an overview of the solution. Assessment tools, bibliographies and lists of relevant links are provided in each training module. This American site also provides online discussion forums for each of the topics. The practicing physician education (PPE) in geriatrics project – www.gericareonline.net/ Offers materials to help physicians and other health professionals integrate evidence- based medicine (EBM) into their treatment of older patients. Tool kits on memory loss, urinary incontinence, depression, heart failure, persistent pain, falls and prevention can be downloaded to help physicians and other health care providers better understand geriatric syndromes and other chronic conditions common in older adults. Developed in the USA. Bibliographies Current perspective series – www.deerlodge.mb.ca/crane_library/publication.asp Provides a number of bibliographies on key geriatric topics that are updated on an ongoing basis. They are composed of selected articles from the current journal literature, focusing on systematic reviews, best practice models, and innovative approaches. Current topics deal with: challenging behavior; communication and dementia; continence; depression in long-term care; end of life; environmental design; falls; family involvement in long-term care; institutional elder abuse; pressure ulcers; restraints in long-term care; sexuality in long-term care; and transitioning to long-term care. Produced by the J.W. Crane Memorial Library of Gerontology and Geriatrics in Canada. Databases Effective Older People Care –www.effectiveolderpeoplecare.org A fully indexed, searchable, Web-enabled database of evidence for the management of older people's care and rehabilitation. It provides the current best evidence in the health care of older people in a concise fashion, focusing on common health problems in old age and different models of service organization for older people. All the practices are based on a critical appraisal of Cochrane systematic reviews. Produced by the Cochrane Health Care of Older People Field, University of Glasgow Academic Section of Geriatric Medicine. Successful Aging Edition (S@Edition) and Successful Aging Database (S@Database) (French only) – www.saging.com
S@Edition provides weekly news of the latest published research findings related to biomedicine and preventive medicine. It also provides, on a subscription basis, more in- depth information about health-related topics and offers an online, searchable database (S@Database) with some 10,000 articles drawn from 2,500 international journals. S@Database, in turn provides access to "Highlights," a review of the most important articles on aging synthesized by Successful Aging experts. Electronic Newsletters GERINET – listserv.buffalo.edu/cgi-bin/wa?SUBED1=gerinet&A=1 An electronic discussion list that deals with health care issues and aging; most participants are American Geronurse – An electronic discussion list that promotes geriatric nursing dialogue and activities, posts updates in best nursing practice and innovations, and is open to all practitioners, researchers, educators, and students with an interest in the field. How to subscribe: Send an email to: [email protected] Leave the subject box blank In the body of the message, type: subscribe HEALTH PROMOTION Active Ageing: A Policy Framework (WHO/NMH/NPH/02.8)8– whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_NMH_NPH_02.8.pdf This Policy Framework is intended to inform discussion and the formulation of action plans that promote healthy and active ageing. It was developed by WHO’s Ageing and Life Programme in 2002. Healthy ageing: keystone for a sustainable Europe – ec.europa.eu/health/ph_information/indicators/docs/healthy_ageing_en.pdf Examines current trends in life expectancy, how they relate to healthy life years, and what this could mean for European Union (EU) now and in the future Member States. Produced by the EU, 2007. Men, ageing and health: achieving health across the life span (01WHO/NMH/ NPH 01.2) – whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2001/WHO_NMH_NPH_01.2.pdf Examines the determinants of older men’s health and proposes a framework and strategies for action. Published in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Women, ageing and health: achieving health across the life span (WHO/HPR/AHE/HPD/96.1) – whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1996/WHO_HPR_AHE_HPD_96.1_2nd_ed.pdf
Examines the determinants of older women’s health and proposes a framework and strategies for action. Published in 1998 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Evidence-based guidelines A new vision of aging: Helping older adults make healthier choices – www.cfah.org/pdfs/agingreport.pdf Summarizes the evidence on the benefits of health promotion in older adults in the United States. Also identifies programs that effectively help older people to live longer and healthier lives by increasing physical activity, improving eating habits and minimizing the risk of falling. Developed by the Center for the Advancement of Health in the USA. Clearinghouses Live well, live long clearinghouse – www.asaging.org/cdc/index.cfm Offers strategies and materials to enhance the capacity of organizations in serving the health promotion and disease prevention needs of older adults. Provides tools for professionals in stand-alone modules. Current titles are: Blueprint forHealth Promotion; Strategies for Cognitive Vitality; Road Map to Driving Wellness; Physical Activity; Mental Wellness; Optimal Medication Use; Food for Health: Nutritional Well-Being for Older Adults; Deep Vein Thrombosis; and Diabetes Prevention, andManagement. Produced by the American Society on Aging. Training tools First step to active health – www.firststeptoactivehealth.com/ Provides several important tools to promote physical activity among sedentary elders, including the Active Aging Toolkit and an evidence-based, progressive activity program directed to both consumers and health care providers. Developed by the Hygenic Corporation and Thera-Band Products in the USA. HIV/AIDS Building blocks: Africa-wide briefing notes – supporting older carers (available in English, French and Portuguese – www.helpage.org/Resources/Manuals Explains why programs designed to support orphans and vulnerable children need to pay more attention to the needs of the older people who care for them. Produced by HelpAge International and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in 2004. The elderly, HIV/AIDS and sustainable rural development – www.fao.org/sd/2002/PE0101_en.htm (English) www.fao.org/sd/2002/PE0101_fr.htm (French) www.fao.org/sd/2002/PE0101_es.htm (Spanish) Discusses the impact of rural aging and HIV/AIDS on the sustainability of rural areas and food production. Produced by the Food and Health Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in 2002. Forgotten families: older people as carers for orphans and vulnerable children – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports
Describes case studies of innovative ways of dealing with some of the difficulties faced by older-headed households that appropriate technical support minimal additional resources can have. Produced by HelpAge International and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance. Policy workshop on HIV/AIDS and Windhoek, Namibia – www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Meetings/hiv2830jan04.pdf Annex I: HIV/AIDS and family well-being in southern Africa: towards an analysis of policies and responsiveness – www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Meetings/hiv2830jan04a1.pdf Includes recommendations for the development of a strategic policy framework to assist governments in Africa to strengthen the capacity of families and family networks to cope with HIV/AIDS. Sponsored by the United Nations, 28-30 January, 2004. The Valletta Declaration – policy.helptheaged.org.uk/NR/rdonlyres/eloqe5kz2upipjiwkmpll5xhil64xkha2bbf3dnrdb nvffevrdqnzkfomwmxsm3tlkdnktlgd7hddkgmkmkex2mhyec/valetta_declaration_nov05. pdf A declaration directed to governments and civil society on dealing with HIV/AIDS. Developed by an international expert group meeting in Malta in 2005 under the sponsorship of HelpAge International and the International Institute on Ageing, United Nations, November 2005. Guidelines and best practices Counting Carers: How to improve data collection and information on households affected by AIDS and reduce the poverty of carers, people living with HIV and vulnerable children – www.helpage.org/Resources/Researchreports Aims to guide governments, NGOs and others working to improve data collection and analysis on households affected by AIDS. It identifies the limits of existing data and suggests how this may be further analysed to produce better information and what future surveys might include. Published by HelpAge International, 2006) HUMAN RIGHTS Human Rights IFAs policy section on age discrimination – www.ifa-fiv.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=51&Itemid=106 Contains full text of age discrimination legislation. Produced by the International Federation on Ageing (IFA) The Rights of Older Persons: A Collection of International Documents – www.ifa-fiv.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=73&Itemid=100 Pulls together full text of age discrimination legislation and many diverse documents concerning the rights and status of the aged that have been prepared at the international level. Authors: Israel Doron and Kate Mewhinney. Available as book or CD-ROM from the International Federation on Ageing (IFA), 2008. Guidelines and best practices Addressing older people's rights in Africa: Good practice guidelines – www.helpage.org/Resources/Manuals Designed to provide guidance for people working with older people and those involved in human rights issues. Produced by HelpAge International. Equal treatment, equal rights: Ten actions to end age discrimination – www.helpage.org/Resources/Policyreports Draws on consultations with older people from the developing world and transitional economies to set out 10 concrete actions to ensure that older people across the world benefit from the full range of internationally accepted human rights. Produced by HelpAge International. UN Principles for Older Persons www.un.org/esa/socdev/ageing/un_principles.html (available in English, French and Spanish) – www.un.org/esa/socdev/ageing/un_principles.html The Principles focus on independence, participation, care, self-fulfillment and dignity. Adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1991. Training tools Combating discrimination: A Training Manual – ec.europa.eu/employment_social/fundamental_rights/pdf/civil/train_en.pdf Developed to provide training on European and national anti-discrimination law and policy to non-governmental organizations in the 10 new Member States and in Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey. Available in the languages of member states. Produced for the European Union. IMPACT OF POPULATION AGING Why Population Aging Matters: A Global Perspective – www.state.gov/g/oes/rls/or/81537.htm Describes the impact of population aging on nations and the population trends that are transforming the world in fundamental ways. Produced for the US Department of State in 2007. World Economic and Social Survey 2007: Development in an Ageing World – www.un.org/esa/policy/wess/index.html Analyses the implications of population ageing for social and economic development around the world, while recognizing that it offers both challenges and opportunities. Prepared by the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). INDICATORS Further implementation of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing: strategic implementation framework - Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.5/2009/5) – daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N08/617/52/PDF/N0861752.pdf?OpenElement Proposes strategic policy framework for the implementation of the MIPAA following the first five-year review. Discusses implementation approaches and means of strengthening national capacity on ageing, including proposed indicators, 2009. Mainstreaming Ageing: Indicators to Monitor Implementation – www.euro.centre.org/data/1192809590_39180.pdf Edited by Bernd Marin and Asghar Zaidi, this book includes contributions by many renowned international experts on ageing on the indicators of achievement available to monitor effective policy-making in ageing societies, to review sustainable progress in mainstreaming ageing, and to assess the impact of the United Nations global Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing and its Regional Implementation Strategy. Evidence is drawn from the 56 countries of the UN-European Region across Europe, North America and Central Asia. Complete table of contents available on the Web. Manual sobre indicadores de calidad de vida en la vejez (Manual of indicators of the quality of life of older persons) (Spanish only) – www.eclac.org/cgi- bin/getProd.asp?xml=/publicaciones/xml/0/28240/P28240.xml&xsl=/celade/tpl/p9f.xsl& base=/celade/tpl/top-bottom_env.xsl Proposes a series of indicators for the design of policies and programs to improve the quality of life of older persons in the following areas: health, economic security, the physical environment, support networks, and social integration. Developed by the Population Division (CEPAL) of the regional office of the UN for Latin America and the Caribbean (CELADE). The Situation of Elderly Women Available Statistics and Indicators – www.un-instraw.org/en/docs/ageing/Elderly_Women.pdf Describes the changing status and role of elderly women in countries around the world. Developed in the early 1990s, but includes projections for the future. Published by the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) INSTITUTIONAL CARE Guidelines and best practices Activity Provision: Benchmarking Good Practice in Care Homes – www.cot.org.uk/specialist/olderpeople/news/pdf/ActivityProvisionENGLISH.pdf The Guide is directed care home providers in the United Kingdom, and offers a framework of person-centered quality indicators and outcome measures to improve the level of activities for residents. A benchmark tool is provided to permit care home providers to assess their current level of service provision and to identify areas for improvement in an action plan. Published in 2007 by the College of Occupational Therapists
Best practice guidelines for least restraint utilization – www.shannex.com/files/File/Best-Practice-Guidelines-Restraints.pdf Provides a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach to reduce the use of restraints--one which was based on research and best practice. Developed by Shannex, a private health care provider in Nova Scotia, Canada. Best practices related to aging of the Joanna Briggs Institute – www.joannabriggs.edu.au/pubs/best_practice.php Directed to health professionals in acute or long-term care settings, these sheets cover dementia; dental care; drug use; malnutrition; oral health; oral hydration; restraints; and sleep. Developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute in Australia. Introductory guide to end of life care– eolc.cbcl.co.uk/eolc/eolcpublications/Guide%20To%20EoLC%20care%20homes%20lo.p df Designed for care home managers and staff interested in improving care of residents in the final stages of life. Provides definitions of terms used in end of life care, case studies of residents, and examples of best practices in palliative care in care homes. Published by Britain's National Health Service in cooperation with the National Council for Palliative Care, 2006. Training tools The growing challenge of Alzheimer's Disease in residential settings – www.nia.nih.gov/Alzheimers/Publications/GrowingChallenge/ Designed to give helpful information about Alzheimer's Disease to staff and managers of retirement communities, senior housing developments, assisted living facilities, and case coordination agencies. Intended for use by staff developers and others involved in offering in-service training programs about issues related to older persons living in residential communities. Published by the Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center in the USA. Hydration and older people – www.water.org.uk/home/water-for-health/older-people For use by care managers, caterers and others involved in the delivery of care to older people in care homes. Developed through an alliance of care sector stakeholders in the UK, along with Water UK, 2005. Infection control guidance for care homes – www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/13/63/84/04136384.pdf Offers best practice guidance on the prevention of infection in care homes. Produced by Britain's Department of Health in collaboration with the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, 2006. My Home Life – www.myhomelife.org.uk/
Offers a range of resources and practice development initiatives to improve the life of older persons in care homes, based on the British experience. An initiative of Help the Aged. INTERGENERATIONAL RELATIONS The State of Intergenerational Relations Today - http://www.ilcuk.org.uk/record.jsp?type=publication&ID=36 A research and discussion paper that explores the importance of intergenerational relations in society and related challenges and opportunities, including the role of public policy in promoting positive intergenerational relations. Author: David Lloyd. Published by the International Longevity Centre – UK, 2008. Training tools: Experience after school - www.experiencecorps.org/images/pdf/pdf/toolkit.pdf As part of its mission to promote volunteer opportunities for older Americans, Experience Corps, together with Civic Ventures, has developed this manual for starting after-school programs. Guidelines have been drawn from the actual experience of successful programs that have tapped older volunteers. National Academy for Teaching and Learning about Aging (NATLA) – www.cps.unt.edu/natla/index.html NATLA promotes education in the United States about aging-related issues in teacher preparation universities and kindergarten through high schools. Has developed a collection of six interrelated guides that promote education for, with, and about older adults that are for sale. Provides the full text of "AGE SHARE Research and Education Briefs" on its Web site for educators interested in promoting gerontology education in kindergarten and grades 1-12. Also featured are downloadable lesson plans for elementary grades and curriculum guides for purchase. ISOLATION Isolation to Exclusion – www.i2i-project.net/ Describes initiatives that have taken place in place in Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Lithuania and the UK to overcome isolation and social exclusion among vulnerable elders. Project coordinated by Hessische Staatskanzlei Wiesbaden, Department office Landesehrenamtsagentur Hessen (LEAH), Germany. Unlocking the Community – www.ilcuk.org.uk/files/pdf_pdf_29.pdf Describes the interest among older persons to create self-organizing groups in the community that promote active ageing and social participation, and two successful British approaches to organizing activities and groups at the local level for isolated older persons. Produced by the International Longevity Center, UK. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Aging in the Americas into the XXI Century: A Wall Chart (available in English and Spanish) – www.census.gov/ipc/www/agingam.html Provides demographic data and projections for the 65+ population in the Americas for 1997 and 2025. A joint product of PAHO/WHO, the US National Institute on Aging, and the US Bureau of the Census, 1998. Bibliografía Digital Científica del RAM (Digital Scientific Library of RAM) – www.redadultosmayores.com.ar An online bibliographic database on aging with a focus on gerontological research in the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. Full text is available in PDF files. Research related to aging is organized by topic and by regions and countries. Sponsored by RAM, a Latin American network that promotes the "actualization" of older persons. Brasilia Declaration – www.un.org/esa/socdev/ageing/documents/regional_review/Declaracion_Brasilia.pdf This declaration was the culmination of the Second Regional Intergovernmental Conference on Ageing in Latin America and the Caribbean held 4-6 December 2007. The meeting was held to review progress on implementing the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing and make recommendations for the future. Produced by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. El envejecimiento y las personas de edad. Indicadores sociodemográficos para América Latina y el Caribe (Latin America and the Caribbean: Aging and Older Persons. Socio-demographic Indicators for Latin America and the Caribbean (March 2009) (Spanish only) – www.globalaging.org/elderrights/world/2009/socio.pdf Offers statistical information about the aging process of the Latin American and Caribbean population and the socio-economic characteristics of older people, including their living situation. A joint publication of CELADE and the UNFPA. Manual sobre indicadores de calidad de vida en la vejez (Manual on indicators of quality of life in old age) (Spanish only) – www.eclac.org/cgi- bin/getProd.asp?xml=/publicaciones/xml/0/28240/P28240.xml&xsl=/celade/tpl/p9f.xsl& base=/celade/tpl/top-bottom_env.xsl Proposes a series of indicators for the design of policies and programs to improve the quality of life of older persons in the following areas: health, economic security, the physical environment, support networks, and social integration. Developed by the Population Division (CEPAL) of the regional office of the UN for Latin America and the Caribbean (CELADE). Only available in Spanish. Population ageing in the Caribbean – A four country study www.cepal.cl/celade/noticias/paginas/2/28632/LC_CAR_L128.pdf This study is the first comprehensive attempt to analyze national census data with a specific view at the elderly population, their health and well-being, living arrangements and economic security in Antigua and Barbuda, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. Produced for the Population Division (CEPAL) of the regional office of the UN for Latin America and the Caribbean (CELADE).
Population Ageing in the Caribbean: An Inventory of Policies, Programs and Future Challenges (LC/CAR/G.772/Corr.1) – www.monitoringris.org/documents/strat_reg/uneclac1.pdf Offers a demographic analysis of the ageing process in the Caribbean by presenting the development of selected indicators from the past to the present and projections into the future covering a time-span of 100 years from 1950 until 2050. The second part of the study provides an inventory of national and subregional policies and programs in the areas of social security, pension schemes and welfare programs, as well as labor force participation and health. Published by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2004. Regional strategy for the implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing – www.eclac.org/celade/noticias/paginas/1/13611/FINAL-DSC-1-Ingles.pdf Published in November 2003 by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Report of the Caribbean Symposium on Population Ageing – www.eclac.org/celade/noticias/paginas/2/28632/reportL041.pdf Report of a meeting that took place 8-10 November, 2004. Published by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005. Social security programs throughout the world: The Americas, 2007 – www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2006-2007/americas/index.html Updated on a biennial basis, this directory provides descriptions of each nation’s social security system. Published by the US Social Security Administration. Clearinghouses CELADE: Envejecimiento y Desarrollo (Spanish only) – www.eclac.cl/celade/envejecimiento/ CELADE is the population division of the UN Economic Commission for Latin American and the Caribbean (CEPAL) and sponsors considerable activity--research and conferences--in aging. This includes providing an online clearinghouse of information about its activities and that of others in the region in various aspects of aging. Its Web site offers links to demographic databases around the world, full text documents produced in different parts of Latin America and the Caribbean, abstracts of articles about aging that have appeared in CELADE's journal, statistical data and a calendar of events. LIVABLE COMMUNITIES Guidelines and best practices Best practices: Lessons for communities – www.vnsny.org/advantage/tools/Advantage_best.pdf Examines the experience of 17 American communities that have tried to become more "elder friendly." Summary, as well as detailed, descriptions of each project are provided.
The projects address basic needs for housing and security; maintenance of physical and mental health; independence for the frail and homebound; and opportunities for social and civic engagement. Published by the Center for Home Care Policy and Research, Visiting Nurse Service of New York, 2003. Global Age Friendly Cities: A Guide (Guide mondial des villes-amies des aînés) – www.who.int/ageing/publications/Global_age_friendly_cities_Guide_English.pdf www.who.int/ageing/publications/Guide_mondial_des_villes_amies_des_aines.pdf (French version) Examines the converging trends of population aging and urbanization, and describes the characteristics of "age-friendly" cities based on research with older persons, caregivers and service providers. Areas if particular concern are: outdoor spaces and buildings; transportation; housing; social participation; respect and social inclusion; civic participation and employment; communication and information; and community support and health services. Guidelines are provided on how to use the findings of the report to stimulate action in cities worldwide. Published by the World Health Organization, October, 2007. Clearinghouses Age Friendly Communities - www.agefriendlycommunities.org An online clearinghouse on the topic of ensuring enabling and supportive environments for older persons worldwide. Provides information portals for Age Friendly Initiatives, as well as the Healthy Cities Initiative, Partners for Livable Communities, and the Flag of Towns and Cities for All. Sponsored by the International Federation on Ageing. LIVING ARRANGEMENTS Living arrangements of older persons around the world – un.org/esa/population/publications/livingarrangement/report.htm Presents the first global survey and analysis of the patterns and trends in the living arrangements of older persons. Comparable data are presented for more than 130 countries. Produced by the UN Population Division, November 2005. LONG-TERM CARE Community home-based care in resource limited settings. A framework for action www.who.int/hiv/pub/prev_care/isbn9241562137.pdf The first section poses questions to guide policy formation. The second section raises issues that reflect the overall management and administration of community home-based care (CHBC). The final section raises questions to guide community groups in planning, implementing and evaluating CHBC programs. Targeted to policy-makers and senior administrators, middle managers and those who develop and run CHBC programs. Published by the World Health Organization, 2002. Consumer direction and choice in long-term care for older persons, including payments for informal care – www.oecd.org/dataoecd/53/62/34897775.pdf
Reports the detailed results of research on choice carried out as part of the long-term care study under the OECD Health Project, which was later published under the title “Long- term care policies for older people.” Author: J. Lundsgaard; Publisher: OECD, 2005. Current and future long-term care needs (WHO/NMH/CCL/02.2) – whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_NMH_CCL_02.2.pdf Makes projections for long-term care needs over the next 50 years. Concludes that the absolute number of functionally dependent people, and the number in proportion to the working population, will increase greatly – particularly in developing countries. Produced by the World Health Organization, 2002. “We shall travel on:” Quality of care, economic development, and the international migration of long-term care workers – www.aarp.org/research/longtermcare/quality/2005_14_intl_ltc.html The increasing international migration of workers from developing countries to provide long-term care services in developed countries is examined in this AARP Public Policy Institute Issue Paper. Authors: Don Redfoot and Ari Houser. Published by AARP, October 2005. Clearinghouses National Clearinghouse on the Direct Care Workforce – www.directcareclearinghouse.org Provides a large array of published materials dealing with issues such as recruitment, retention, training, peer support and career advancement. Also provides a "Practice Profile Database" that describes model programs addressing these issues in the USA. Guidelines and best practices Dignity in care – www.scie.org.uk/publications/practiceguides/practiceguide09/index.asp Designed to help workers, practitioners, and managers ensure that dignity and respect are integral to the services they provide. The guide provides information on what service users can expect from their health and social services, and includes resources and practical advice like downloadable training packages and audit tools to help providers and practitioners develop their practice. Published November 2006; new content added August 2007, February 2008 and March 2009. Training tools Teaching and Learning to Care: Training for Caregivers in Long Term Care (TLC for LTC) www.nursing.upenn.edu/cisa/geroTIPS/tlcltc/Pages/default.aspx TLC for LTC is a series of instructional modules directed to meeting the needs of staff development educators and instructors. The individual modules are available to download free of charge. Topics covered include, falls, pressure ulcers, adverse drug risks, cognitive decline and dementia, communication in dementia through behavior, palliative care, continence, pain assessment and management, and oral health. For some modules a streaming video is also available online. The electronic version of TLC for LTC contains
Direktion Recht – Sportgerichtsbarkeit – Finanzen An die Vereine der Bundesliga, 2. Bundesliga, 3. Liga Regionalliga, Frauen-Bundesliga und A- und B-Junioren-Bundesligen WADA-Liste verbotener Wirkstoffe und verbotener Methoden gültig ab 1.1.2012 als Anlage überlassen wir Ihnen die neue WADA-Verbotsliste 2012, die am 1.1.2012 in Kraft tritt, im englischen Originaltext (gültig in Zweife
Arch. Med. Vet. XXXVI, Nº 2, 2004 In vitro susceptibility of Arcobacter butzleri to six antimicrobial drugs* Susceptibilidad in vitro de Arcobacter butzleri a seis drogas antimicrobianas L. OTTH, T.M., M. WILSON, T.M., R. CANCINO, T.M., H. FERNANDEZ1, T.M., D. SC.Instituto de Microbiología Clínica, Universidad Austral de Chile, PO BOX 567. Valdivia. Chile.Se determinaron