Microsoft word - 005-guideline_bullouspemphigoid_2011.doc
target antigens dermo-epidermal junction
F (Level of evidence 1, Strength of recommendations A) F
2.3.1 Azathioprine (Level of evidence 2, Strength of recommendations B)
2.3.2 Methotrexate (Level of evidence 3, Strength of recommendations C)
2.3.3 Cyclophosphamide (Level of evidence 4, Strength of recommendations C)
2.3.4 Mycophenolate mofetil (Level of evidence 2, Strength of recommendations B)
2.3.5 Cyclosporine (Level of evidence 4, Strength of recommendations C)
2.3.6 Chlorambucil (Level of evidence 3, Strength of recommendations C)
F (Level of evidence 4, Strength of recommendations C)
2.4.1 Dapsone (Level of evidence 3, Strength of recommendations C)
2.4.2 Sulfonamides (Level of evidence 3, Strength of recommendations C) sulfapyridine
Glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
3.1 Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (Level of evidence 3, Strength of recommendations
3.2 Plasmapheresis (Plasma exchange) (Level of evidence 2, Strength of recommendations B)
1. Kulthanan K, Chularojanamontri L, Tuchinda P, Sirikudta W, Pinkaew S. Prevalence and Clinical
features of Thai patients with bul ous pemphigoid. Asian Pac J Al ergy Immunol 2011; 29: 66-72.
2. Mutasim DF. Management of autoimmune bul ous diseases: pharmacology and therapeutics. J Am
3. Wojnarowska F, Kirtschig G, Highet AS, Venning VA, Khumalo NP. Guidelines for the
management of bul ous pemphigoid. Br J Dermatol 2002 147: 214-21.
4. Kirtschig G, Middleton P, Bennet C, Mur el DF, Wojnarowska F, Khumalo NP. Interventions for
bul ous pemphigoid. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 Oct6; (10): CD 002292.
5. Heilborn JD, Stahle-Backdahl M, Albertioni F, Vassilaki I, Peterson C, Stephansson E. Low- dose
oral pulse methotrexate as monotherapy in elderly patients with bul ous pemphigoid. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 40:741-9.
6. Itoh T, Hosokawa H, Shirai Y, Horio T. Successful treatment of bul ous pemphigoid with pulsed
intravenous cyclophosphamide. Br J Dermatol 1996; 134: 931-3.
7. Venning VA, Mil ard PR, Wojnarowska F. Dapsone as first line therapy for bul ous pemphigoid. Br
8. Bouscarat F, Chosidow O, Picard-Dahan C, et al. Treatment of bul ous pemphigoid with dapsone:
retrospective study of thirty-six cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 34: 683-4.
9. Joly P, Roujeau JC, Benichou J, Picard C, Dreno B, Delaporte E, et al. A comparison of oral and
topical corticosteroids in patients with bul ous pemphigoid. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 321-7.
10. Fiverson P, Breneman L, Rosen B, Hersh S, Cardone S, Mutasim D. Nicotinamide and tetracycline
therapy of bul ous pemphigoid. Arch Dermatol 1994; 130: 753-8.
11. Morel P, Guil aume JC. Treatment of bul ous pemphigoid with prednisolone only: 0.75 mg/kg/day
versus 1.25 mg/kg/day. A multicenter randomized study. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1984; 111: 925-8.
12. Dreno B, Sassolas B, Lacour P, Montpoint S, Lota I, Giordano F, et al. Methylprednisolone versus
prednisolone methylsulfobenzoate in pemphigoid: a comparative multicenter study. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1993; 120: 518-21.
13. Piamphongsan T. Dapsone for the treatment of bul ous pemphigoid. Asain Pac J Al ergy Immunol
14. Burton JL, Harman RR, Peachey RD, Warin RP. Azathioprine plus prednisone in treatment of
15. Guil aume JC, Vail ant L, Bernard P, Picard C, Prost C, Labeil e B, et al. Control ed trial of
azathioprine and plasma exchange in addition to prednisolone in the treatment of bul ous pemphigoid. Arch Dermatol 1993; 129: 49-53.
16. Roujeau JC, Guil aume JC, Morel P, et al. Plasma exchange in bul ous pemphigoid Lancet. 1984; 2:
17. Hofmann S, Thoma-Uszynski S, Hunziker T, et al. Severity and phenotype of bul ous pemphigoid
relate to antibody profile against the NH2- and COOH-terminal regions of the BP180 ectodomain. J
18. Tsuji-Abe Y, Akiyama M, Yamanaka Y, Kikuchi T, Sato-Matsumura KC, Shimizu H. Cor elation of
clinical severity and ELISA indices for the NC16A domain of BP180 measured using BP180 ELISA kit in bul ous pemphigoid. J Dermatol Sci 2005; 37: 145-9.
19. Schmidt E, Obe K, Brocker EB, Zil ikens D. Serum levels of autoantibodies to BP180 cor elate with
disease activity in patients with bul ous pemphigoid. Arch Dermatol 2000; 136: 174-8.
Level of evidence Strength of recommendation
Copyright 2002 The New York Times CompanyMay 5, 2002, Sunday, Late Edition - FinalSECTION: Section 6; Page 56; Column 1; Magazinemember of our species to show where this kind of analysisBut the enalapril researchers were doing somethinguseful. Their study informed thousands of doctors that,when it came to their black patients, one drug was moreHEADLINE: I Am a Racially Profiling Doctorlikel
Substances that facilitate lucid dreaming – A Case Study Written By: Thomas Yuschak, Contact: Thomas Yuschak [email protected] Substances that Facilitate Lucid Dreaming – A Case Study Abstract A test matrix utilizing six different supplements: galantamine, huperzine A, nicotine, bupropion, propranolol, and an amino acid blend was used to show that lucid dreams a