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Microsoft powerpoint - tscc drinking water.ppt

Pesticide Residues in Drinking
Michael F. Hare, Ph.D.
Pesticides Division
Texas Department of Agriculture
[Federal Register: September 27, 2002 (Vol
67, # 188)] [Notices] [Page 61099-61102]
----------------------------------------
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Caffeine; Receipt of Application for
Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of
Public Comment.

SUMMARY: EPA has received a quarantine
exemption request from the USDA APHIS
to use the pesticide caffeine (1H-purine-
2,6-dione,3,7-dihydro-1,3,7- trimethyl-)
(CAS No. 58-08-2) to treat up to 200 acres
of floriculture and nursery crops, parks,
hotels and resort areas, and forest
habitats to control Coqui and Greenhouse
frogs.

USDA’s Pesticide Data
Residue data from 1991 to the present
Focused on foods consumed by children
Data are representative of exposure in
the US diet.
Commodities
apple juice
grapefruit
broccoli
can/frz grnbns
grapefruit
green beans
green beans
green beans oranges
potatoes
green beans
potatoes
potatoes
sweet corn
potatoes
sweet corn
sweet peas
sweet corn
potatoes
sweet peas
sweet pot.
sweet corn
tomatoes
sweet peas
wheat
whole milk

apple juice
apple juice apples
can peach
cantaloupe cantaloupe
cantaloupes
apple juice
can peach
cn/frz grnbnscorn syrup
broccoli
apple sauce
can spinach corn syrup
cucumbers
cherries
asparagus
can/frz grnbnsgrape juice grape juice
cucumbers
frz w squash milk
cherries
orange juice orange juice oats (roll/brn)
green beans
pears (frsh/cn)
broccoli
potat spec.
soybeans
spinach, frozen
nectarines
potatoes
strwbrs (frsh/frz) oranges
mushrooms
soybeans
strawberries sweet bell pepperpeaches
nectarines
cucumbers
sweet pot.
tomatoes (fr/can) peanut butter
mushrooms
sweet pot.
tomatoes
w. squash (fr/frz) pears (can)
tomatoes
wnt squash
pineapples
pineapples
potatoes
potatoes
pineapples
whole milk
can swt.corn
potatoes
winter squash
can set peas
strwbrs (frsh/frz) can tom.paste spinach
swt bll peps

sweet bell peppers
tomatoes (can) water, drnk
sweet corn, can
beef, fat
sweet corn, frozen
beef, liver
sweet peas, can
beef, muscle
sweet peas, frozen
poultry, fat
water, fin. drnk.
poultry, liver
poultry, muscle

Asparagus, canned
Cantaloupe
Cantaloupe
Asparagus, fresh
Cauliflower
Cauliflower
Cucumbers
Cream, heavy
Eggplant
Cantaloupe
Green Beans, canne Grapefruit
Cucumgers
Green Beans, fresh Grapes
Green Beans, canned Lettuce
Green Beans, fresh
Mushrooms
Green Beans, frozen
Orange Juice
Peaches, canned
Peaches, fresh
Peaches, canned
Orange Juice
Pear Juice, conc/pure Pears
Pears, fresh
Soybean Grain
Spinach, canned
Plums, Fresh
Sweet Bell Peppers
Strawberries
Plums, dried (prunes
Sweet Corn, frozen
Sweet Bell Peppers Pork, adipose/muscle
Sweet Peas, frozen
Sweet Potatoes
Soybean Grain
Sweet Potatoes
Tomatoes
Strawberries
Tomatoes
Water, finished
Water, bottled
Water, fin. drnk.
Water, untreated
Water, finished
Wheat Flour
Wheat Flour
Water, untreated
Winter Squash
Watermelon
Wheat Grain
Winter Squash

Pesticides in Fruits & Vegetables
# pest. test. # comm. # samples % detect. # viol.
f&v's
wheat flour
drinking water
f&v's (fresh)
f&v's (processed)
wheat flour
drinking water
f&v's (fresh)
f&v's (processed)
Bottled Water
drinking water
Participating labs monitored 158
pesticides plus 48 metabolites,
degradates, and isomers using
multiresidue methods.

Accepted samples are prepared
emulating the practices of the average
consumer to more closely represent
actual exposure to residues.

Data from 2002
10,056 samples of fruits and vegetables
725 barley samples
495 rice samples
924 beef samples
699 drinking water samples
PDP Summary 2002
Pesticide Detections
Commodity
Fruits & Vegs
PDP Summary 2002
Residue Detections
Residues Percent Cum. Percent
Finished Drinking Water
Monitoring Survey
Coordinated with EPA and the AWWA*
Water treatment facilities are solicited
Facility personnel collect samples
Analysis at PDP laboratories
PDP provides data to facilities in quarterly
* American Water Works Association
Finished Drinking Water
Monitoring Survey
Unlike data collected on f&v, not
representative.
Reflects the unique characteristics of the
watersheds sampled.
Collected just before distribution to
consumers.
Drinking Water
2001: Samples from NY (11), CA (10)
Two highly populated regions
Different hydrological settings
Samples collected bimonthly
2002: Five new sites in KA (2), CO (2),
TX (1) added
Rural areas (<50,000 pop.)
Samples collected weekly
Change in Criteria
2001-2003 sites selected to represent
diversity of land use
2004 and 2005, criteria for site selection
changed.
Service to more than 50,000 people
Use of surface water as primary source
Location in regions of heavy agriculture
where it was known that pesticides heavily
applied.

Table 9. Sampling summary; 2001-2005.
% of samples w/ detects 14.34
Table 8. Summary of selected drinking water pesticide data from 2001-2005.
%Samples with detects
Pesticide
2005 Trenda
a Trend symbols: (-) declining; (+) increasing; (N/A) trend not applicableND: Not Determned; was not included in the pesticide analysis.
Atrazine
Atrazine
(%detects)
Metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid
Table 10. Detection Limit Values and Detection percentages for selected pesticides
in drinking water. 2001-2005.

% Detects
%Detects Change
Pesticide
2005 %Changea in DLb
Atrazine (%detects)
Desethyl atrazine (% detects)
Desisopropyl atrazine (% det.)
Hydroxy atrazine (% dets.)
Metolachlor (% dets.)
M. ethanesulfonic acid (%det.)
M. oxanilic acid (% dets.)
Simazine (% detects)
Alachlor (% detects)
A. ethanesulfonic acid (% dets)
Alachlor oxanilic acid (% det.)
2,4-D (% detects)
a To calculate % Change in the % Detections the % of detects in 2001 were subtracted from the in 2005; the remainder was then divided by the % Detects in 2001 (baseline) and the result mu 100 to give a percentage change from 2001.
b Detection Limits are express and a "fold" decrease relative to detection limits in 2001. For inst the Lower DL for Atrazine, the Lower DL for 2001 (5.0) was divided by the Lower DL for 2005 (0 resulting in a 7.6 fold decrease in the Lower DL from 2001 to 2005.
Okay, so what does it all mean?
We need some…
…perspective!
Atrazine, 2005
Max. conc. Detected?
What is the Risk?
scenario water gives you
0.24% of the RfDc.
A Simple Comparison
Average American consumes 4.5 cups of coffee
per day. That’s about 238 mg of caffeine per
person per day.

Average exposure to atrazine in finished
drinking water is 0.003 mg/person/day.
So, average American is exposed to about
80,000 times more caffeine than atrazine.
A Simple Comparison, pt. 2
Exposure
Caffeine
Atrazine 0.003 mg
Malathion
0.000002
So, is Caffeine killing us?
What we know.
Caffeine can increase blood pressure
but only for a short time. There is no
other biologically plausible reason why
coffee should cause heart or other
vascular effects.

Still Concerned?
How about bottled water?
Table 6. Distribution of Residues by Pesticide in Bottled Water in 2005.
Pesticide
Table 7. Comparison of pesticide residues in bottled water and in
public drinking water for selected pestides in 2005.

% of Samples with Detects
Drinking Bottled
Pesticide
Difference
Cheers for Beers
Beer has been found to be protective against
heart attacks among middle aged men in the
Czech Republic. Over 900 men who drank only
beer were studied. Those who drank 5 to 9
liters per week were less than half as likely to
have a heart attack than those who drank no
beer (British Med. J., May 20, 2000).

Acute Toxicity (LD50)
Chemical
Chemical
Botulinum toxin
Dioxin (TCDD)
Strychnine sulfate
Lime/Sulfur2
CARBOFURAN
Vitamin D32
Boric acid2
Rotenone2
Ferrous sulfate2
Nicotine2
ATRAZINE
Caffeine
MALATHION
NaCl (salt)
Copper sulfate2
GLYPHOSATE
Solanine
Ethyl alcohol2
1Oral Lethal Dose 50% in rats2 Approved organic pesticides.
Drinking Water
372 of 699 samples (53.2%) had
detectable levels of pesticides.
28 different pesticides out of 150 tested for.
59% were at or below LOQ (usually 3X
Only 16 detected above the LOQ.
None exceeded MCLs.
Most common pesticides (699 total samples)
Atrazine (258)
Metolachlor (233)
Metolachlor ESA (198)
Atrazine desethyl (154)
Metolachlor (152)
Simazine (141)
Atrazine disospropyl (127)
Alachlor ESA (76)

Source: http://www.tscc.state.tx.us/presentations/pesticide_residuesinwater.pdf

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