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Microsoft powerpoint - tscc drinking water.ppt
Pesticide Residues in Drinking
Michael F. Hare, Ph.D.
Texas Department of Agriculture
[Federal Register: September 27, 2002 (Vol
67, # 188)] [Notices] [Page 61099-61102]
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Caffeine; Receipt of Application for
Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of
SUMMARY: EPA has received a quarantine
exemption request from the USDA APHIS
to use the pesticide caffeine (1H-purine-
(CAS No. 58-08-2) to treat up to 200 acres
of floriculture and nursery crops, parks,
hotels and resort areas, and forest
habitats to control Coqui and Greenhouse
USDA’s Pesticide Data
• Residue data from 1991 to the present
• Focused on foods consumed by children
• Data are representative of exposure in
the US diet.
green beans oranges
apple juice apples
cn/frz grnbnscorn syrup
can spinach corn syrup
can/frz grnbnsgrape juice grape juice
frz w squash milk
orange juice orange juice oats (roll/brn)
strwbrs (frsh/frz) oranges
strawberries sweet bell pepperpeaches
tomatoes (fr/can) peanut butter
w. squash (fr/frz) pears (can)
can set peas
strwbrs (frsh/frz) can tom.paste spinach
swt bll peps
sweet bell peppers
tomatoes (can) water, drnk
sweet corn, can
sweet corn, frozen
sweet peas, can
sweet peas, frozen
water, fin. drnk.
Green Beans, canne Grapefruit
Green Beans, fresh Grapes
Green Beans, canned Lettuce
Green Beans, fresh
Green Beans, frozen
Pear Juice, conc/pure Pears
Sweet Bell Peppers
Plums, dried (prunes
Sweet Corn, frozen
Sweet Bell Peppers Pork, adipose/muscle
Sweet Peas, frozen
Water, fin. drnk.
Pesticides in Fruits & Vegetables
# pest. test. # comm. # samples % detect. # viol.
• Participating labs monitored 158
pesticides plus 48 metabolites,
degradates, and isomers using
• Accepted samples are prepared
emulating the practices of the average
consumer to more closely represent
actual exposure to residues.
• Data from 2002
– 10,056 samples of fruits and vegetables
– 725 barley samples
– 495 rice samples
– 924 beef samples
– 699 drinking water samples
PDP Summary 2002
Fruits & Vegs
PDP Summary 2002
Residues Percent Cum. Percent
Finished Drinking Water
• Coordinated with EPA and the AWWA*
• Water treatment facilities are solicited
• Facility personnel collect samples
• Analysis at PDP laboratories
• PDP provides data to facilities in quarterly
* American Water Works Association
Finished Drinking Water
• Unlike data collected on f&v, not
• Reflects the unique characteristics of the
• Collected just before distribution to
• 2001: Samples from NY (11), CA (10)
– Two highly populated regions
– Different hydrological settings
– Samples collected bimonthly
• 2002: Five new sites in KA (2), CO (2),
TX (1) added
– Rural areas (<50,000 pop.)
– Samples collected weekly
Change in Criteria
• 2001-2003 sites selected to represent
diversity of land use
• 2004 and 2005, criteria for site selection
– Service to more than 50,000 people
– Use of surface water as primary source
– Location in regions of heavy agriculture
where it was known that pesticides heavily
Table 9. Sampling summary; 2001-2005.
% of samples w/ detects 14.34
Table 8. Summary of selected drinking water pesticide data from 2001-2005.
%Samples with detects
a Trend symbols: (-) declining; (+) increasing; (N/A) trend not applicableND: Not Determned; was not included in the pesticide analysis.
Metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid
Table 10. Detection Limit Values and Detection percentages for selected pesticides
in drinking water. 2001-2005.
Desethyl atrazine (% detects)
Desisopropyl atrazine (% det.)
Hydroxy atrazine (% dets.)
Metolachlor (% dets.)
M. ethanesulfonic acid (%det.)
M. oxanilic acid (% dets.)
Simazine (% detects)
Alachlor (% detects)
A. ethanesulfonic acid (% dets)
Alachlor oxanilic acid (% det.)
2,4-D (% detects)
a To calculate % Change in the % Detections the % of detects in 2001 were subtracted from the in 2005; the remainder was then divided by the % Detects in 2001 (baseline) and the result mu 100 to give a percentage change from 2001.
b Detection Limits are express and a "fold" decrease relative to detection limits in 2001. For inst the Lower DL for Atrazine, the Lower DL for 2001 (5.0) was divided by the Lower DL for 2005 (0 resulting in a 7.6 fold decrease in the Lower DL from 2001 to 2005.
Okay, so what does it all mean?
We need some…
• Max. conc. Detected?
• What is the Risk?
scenario water gives you 0.24% of the RfDc
A Simple Comparison
• Average American consumes 4.5 cups of coffee
per day. That’s about 238 mg of caffeine per
person per day.
• Average exposure to atrazine in finished
drinking water is 0.003 mg/person/day.
• So, average American is exposed to about
80,000 times more caffeine than atrazine.
A Simple Comparison, pt. 2
• Atrazine 0.003 mg
So, is Caffeine killing us?
• What we know.
– Caffeine can increase blood pressure
but only for a short time. There is no
other biologically plausible reason why
coffee should cause heart or other
How about bottled water?
Table 6. Distribution of Residues by Pesticide in Bottled Water in 2005.
Table 7. Comparison of pesticide residues in bottled water and in
public drinking water for selected pestides in 2005.
% of Samples with Detects
Cheers for Beers
• Beer has been found to be protective against
heart attacks among middle aged men in the
Czech Republic. Over 900 men who drank only
beer were studied. Those who drank 5 to 9
liters per week were less than half as likely to
have a heart attack than those who drank no
beer (British Med. J., May 20, 2000).
Acute Toxicity (LD50)
1Oral Lethal Dose 50% in rats2 Approved organic pesticides.
• 372 of 699 samples (53.2%) had
detectable levels of pesticides.
– 28 different pesticides out of 150 tested for.
– 59% were at or below LOQ (usually 3X
– Only 16 detected above the LOQ.
– None exceeded MCLs.
• Most common pesticides (699 total samples)
– Atrazine (258)
– Metolachlor (233)
– Metolachlor ESA (198)
– Atrazine desethyl (154)
– Metolachlor (152)
– Simazine (141)
– Atrazine disospropyl (127)
– Alachlor ESA (76)
Initially, some philosophers such as G. E. Moore and R.M. Hare firstly introduces the idea of supervenience in ethics. Later, the idea of supervenience is also used in the philosophy of mind, and Donald Davison is perhaps the first philosopher who introduces supervenience into the discussion of the mind-body problem. In ethics, philosophers discuss whether ethical properties supervene on non-e
CURRICULUM VITAE MARCEL L. CORSTJENS Address: INSEAD Boulevard de Constance F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex France Date of Birth : 02 September 1949 Nationality: Belgian Civil Status : Married, two children GRADUATE EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT 1975-78 Ph D Business Administration (Marketing), UC Berkeley. First Prize, Doctoral Dissertation Competition, Assistan