11In the days of Xerxes the following events took place. This was the same
Xerxes who ruled over 127 provinces from India to Sudan. 2At the timewhen King Xerxes sat on the royal throne in the fortress of Susa, 3he held
a banquet in the third year of his reign. The banquet was for all his officials and
advisers, that is, the military officers of the Persians and Medes, the nobles
and officials of the provinces who had access to him. 4He showed them the
enormous wealth of his kingdom and the costly splendor of his greatness for
many days, 180 to be exact. 5When those days were over, the king held a
banquet lasting seven days. This banquet was held in the enclosed garden of
the king’s palace for all people in the fortress of Susa, whatever their rank.
The garden had white and violet linen curtains. These curtains were at-
tached to silver rods and marble pillars by cords made of white and purple fine
linen. Gold and silver couches were on a mosaic pavement of purple rock,
white marble, pearl-like stone, and black marble. 7People drank from golden
cups. No two cups were alike. The king also provided plenty of royal wine out
of his royal generosity. 8The drinking followed this rule: Drink as you please.
(The king had ordered all the waiters in his palace to let everyone do as he
9Queen Vashti also held a banquet for the women at the royal palace of
10On the seventh day when the king was drunk on wine, he ordered
Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seveneunuchs who served under King Xerxes, 11to bring Queen Vashti in front ofthe king, wearing her royal crown. He wanted to show the people, especiallythe officials, her beauty, because she was very attractive. 12But Queen Vashtirefused the king’s command that the eunuchs delivered to her. As a result, theking became very angry, and his rage burned inside him.
13Now, the king usually asked for advice from all the experts in royal de-
crees and decisions, 14from those closest to him—Carshena, Shethar, Admatha,Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan. These seven officials of the Persiansand Medes had access to the king and held the highest rank in the kingdom.
The king asked these wise men who knew the times,a 15“According to the royaldecrees, what must we do with Queen Vashti since she did not obey KingXerxes’ command, which the eunuchs delivered?”
16Then Memucan spoke up in the presence of the king and the officials,
“Queen Vashti has done wrong, not only against the king but also against allthe officials and all the people in every province of King Xerxes. 17The news ofwhat the queen has done will spread to all women, and they will despise theirhusbands. They will say, ‘King Xerxes ordered Queen Vashti to be brought tohim, but she would not come.’ 18Today the wives of the officials in Persia and
a 1:14 The first part of verse 13 (in Hebrew) has been placed just before verse 15 to express the complex Hebrew sentencestructure more clearly in English.
Media who have heard what the queen did will talk back to all the king’sofficials. There will be contempt and short tempers. 19If it pleases you, YourMajesty, issue a royal decree. It should be recorded in the decrees of thePersians and Medes, never to be repealed, that Vashti may never again appearin front of King Xerxes. Furthermore, Your Majesty, you should give her royalposition to another woman who is more worthy than she. 20When you issueyour decree, your whole kingdom, great as it is, will hear it. Then all the wiveswill honor their husbands, regardless of their status.”
21The king and his officials approved of this, and so the king did as Memucan
suggested. 22He sent official documents to all the king’s provinces, to eachprovince in its own script and to the people in each province in their ownlanguage: “Let every husband be the ruler in his own house and speak withauthority.”b
ESTHER BECOMES QUEEN21Later, when King Xerxes got over his raging anger, he remembered Vashti,
what she had done, and what had been decided against her.
2So the king’s personal staff said to him, “Search for attractive young
virgins for the king. 3And appoint scouts in all the provinces of your kingdomto gather all the attractive young virgins and bring them to the fortress of Susa,to the women’s quarters. There, in the care of the king’s eunuch Hegai, the guard-ian of the women, they will have their beauty treatment. 4Then the youngwoman who pleases you, Your Majesty, will become queen instead of Vashti.”
The king liked the suggestion, and so he did just that.
5In the fortress of Susa there was a Jew from the tribe of Benjamin named
Mordecai. He was the son of Jair, the grandson of Shimei, and the great-grandsonof Kish. 6(Kish had been taken captive from Jerusalem together with the otherswho had gone into exile along with Judah’s King Jehoiakin,a whom King Neb-uchadnezzar of Babylon had carried away.) 7Mordecai had raised Hadassah,
Why was Esther
also known as Esther, his uncle’s daughter, because she was an orphan. The
known by two
young woman had a beautiful figure and was very attractive. When her father
and mother died, Mordecai adopted her as his own daughter.
8When the king’s announcement and decree were heard, many young
women were gathered together and brought to the fortress of Susa. They
were placed in the care of Hegai. Esther also was taken to the king’s palace and
placed in the care of Hegai, the guardian of the women. 9The young woman
pleased him and won his affection. So he immediately provided her with the
beauty treatment, a daily supply of food, and seven suitable female servants
from the king’s palace. Then he moved her and her servants to the best place
10Esther did not reveal her nationality or her family background, because
Mordecai had ordered her not to. 11Every day Mordecai would walk back andforth in front of the courtyard of the women’s quarters to find out how Estherwas and what was happening to her.
12Each young woman had her turn to go to King Xerxes after she had com-
pleted the required 12-month treatment for women. The time of beauty treat-ment was spent as follows: six months using oil of myrrh and six monthsusing perfumes and other treatments for women.
13After that, the young woman would go to the king. Anything she wanted
to take with her from the women’s quarters to the king’s palace was given toher. 14She would go in the evening and come back in the morning to the otherquarters for women. There she would be in the care of the king’s eunuch
b 1:22 Hebrew meaning uncertain. a 2:6 Masoretic Text “Jeconiah,” an alternate form of Jehoiakin.
Shaashgaz, the guardian of the concubines.b She never went to the king againunless the king desired her and requested her by name.
15(Esther was the daughter of Abihail, Mordecai’s uncle. Mordecai had
When Esther’s turn came to go to the king, she asked only for what the
king’s eunuch Hegai, the guardian of the women, advised. Everyone who sawEsther liked her. 16So Esther was taken to King Xerxes in his royal palace in themonth of Tebeth, the tenth month, in the seventh year of his reign.
17Now, the king loved Esther more than all the other women and favored
her over all the other virgins. So he put the royal crown on her head and madeher queen instead of Vashti. 18Then the king held a great banquet for Esther.
He invited all his officials and his advisers. He also declared that day a holidayin the provinces, and he handed out gifts from his royal generosity.
19When the virgins were gathered a second time, Mordecai was sitting at
the king’s gate. 20Esther still had not revealed her family background or nation-
ality, as Mordecai had ordered her. Esther always did whatever Mordecai told
her, as she did when she was a child.
21In those days, while Mordecai was sitting at the king’s gate, Bigthan and
Teresh, two of the king’s eunuchs who guarded the entrance, became angry
and planned to kill King Xerxes. 22But Mordecai found out about it and in-
formed Queen Esther. Then Esther told the king, on behalf of Mordecai. 23Whenthe report was investigated and found to be true, the dead bodies of Bigthanand Teresh were hung on a pole. The matter was written up in the king’spresence in his official record of daily events.
31Later, King Xerxes promoted Haman. (Haman was the son of Hammedatha
and was from Agag.) He gave Haman a position higher in authority thanall the other officials who were with him. 2All the king’s advisers were at
the king’s gate, kneeling and bowing to Haman with their faces touching the
ground, because the king had commanded it. But Mordecai would not kneel
3Then the king’s advisers at the king’s gate asked Mordecai, “Why do you
ignore the king’s command?” 4Although they asked him day after day, he paid
no attention to them. So they informed Haman to see if Mordecai’s actions
would be tolerated, since Mordecai had told them that he was a Jew.
When Haman saw that Mordecai did not kneel and bow to him, Haman was
infuriated. 6Because the king’s advisers had informed him about Mordecai’s
nationality, he thought it beneath himself to kill only Mordecai. So Haman
planned to wipe out Mordecai’s people—all the Jews in the entire kingdom
7In Xerxes’ twelfth year as king, Pur
(which means the lot
) was thrown in
front of Haman for every day of every month, from Nisan, the first month,until Adar, the twelfth month.
8Now, Haman told King Xerxes, “Your Majesty, there is a certain national-
ity scattered among—but separate from—the nationalities in all the provincesof your kingdom. Their laws differ from those of all other nationalities. Theydo not obey your decrees. So it is not in your interest to tolerate them, YourMajesty. 9If you approve, have the orders for their destruction be written. Forthis I will pay 750,000 pounds of silver to your treasurers to be put in yourtreasury.”b 2:14 A concubine is considered a wife except she has fewer rights under the law.
10At that, the king removed his signet ring and gave it to Haman, the enemy
of the Jews. (Haman was the son of Hammedatha and was from Agag.) 11Theking told Haman, “You can keep your silver and do with the people whateveryou like.”
12On the thirteenth day of the first month the king’s scribes were sum-
moned. All Haman’s orders were written to the king’s satraps, the governorsof every province, and the officials of every people. They wrote to each prov-ince in its own script and to the people in each province in their own language.
The orders were signed in the name of King Xerxes and sealed with the king’sring. 13Messengers were sent with official documents to all the king’s prov-inces. The people were ordered to wipe out, kill, and destroy all the Jews—
young and old, women and children—on a single day, the thirteenth day of thetwelfth month, the month of Adar. Their possessions were also to be seized.
14A copy of the document was made public in a decree to every province. Allthe people were to be ready for this day.
15The messengers hurried out as the king told them. The decree was also
issued at the fortress of Susa. So the king and Haman sat down to drink a toast,but the city of Susa was in turmoil.
41When Mordecai found out about everything that had been done, he
tore his clothes and put on sackcloth and ashes. He went into the middleof the city and cried loudly and bitterly. 2He even went right up to the
king’s gate. (No one could enter it wearing sackcloth.)
3In every province touched by the king’s command and decree, the Jews went
into mourning, fasting, weeping, and wailing. Many put on sackcloth and ashes.
4Esther’s servants and eunuchs came and informed her about Mordecai .
The queen was stunned. She sent clothing for Mordecai to put on in place ofhis sackcloth, but he refused to accept it. 5Then Esther called for Hathach, oneof the king’s eunuchs appointed to serve her. She commanded him to go toMordecai and find out what was going on and why.
6So Hathach went out to Mordecai in the city square in front of the king’s
gate. 7Mordecai informed him about everything that had happened to him. Hetold him the exact amount of silver that Haman had promised to pay into theking’s treasury to destroy the Jews. 8He also gave him a copy of the decreethat was issued in Susa. The decree gave permission to exterminate the Jews.
Hathach was supposed to show it to Esther to inform and command her to goto the king, beg him for mercy, and appeal to him for her people. 9So Hathach
returned and told Esther what Mordecai had said.
10Esther spoke to Hathach and commanded him to say to Mordecai, 11“All
the king’s advisers and the people in the king’s provinces know that no one
approaches the king in the throne room without being summoned. By law
that person must be put to death. Only if the king holds out the golden scep-
ter to him will he live. I, myself, have not been summoned to enter the
king’s presence for 30 days now.” 12So Esther’s servants told Mordecai
13Mordecai sent this answer back to Esther, “Do not imagine that just be-
cause you are in the king’s palace you will be any safer than all the rest of the
Jews. 14The fact is, even if you remain silent now, someone else will help and
rescue the Jews, but you and your relatives will die. And who knows, you mayhave gained your royal position for a time like this.”
15Esther sent this reply back to Mordecai, 16“Assemble all the Jews in Susa.
Fast for me: Do not eat or drink at all for three entire days. My servants and Iwill also fast. After that, I will go to the king, even if it is against a royal decree.
If I die, I die.”
17Mordecai did just as Esther had commanded him.
With God’s help,
51On the third day Esther put on her royal robes. She stood in the court-
yard of the king’s palace, facing the king’s throne room. The king wassitting on the royal throne inside the palace, facing the entrance.
2When the king saw Queen Esther standing in the entrance, she won his
favor. So the king held out the golden scepter that was in his hand to Esther.
Esther went up to him and touched the top of the scepter.
3Then the king asked her, “What is troubling you, Queen Esther? What
would you like? Even if it is up to half of the kingdom, it will be granted to you.”
So Esther answered, “If it pleases you, Your Majesty, come today with
Haman to a dinner I have prepared for you.”
The king replied, “Bring Haman right away, and do whatever Esther asks.”
So the king and Haman came to the dinner that Esther had prepared.
6While they were drinking wine, the king asked Esther, “What is your
request? It will be granted to you. What would you like? Even if it is up to half
7Esther answered, “My request? What would I like? 8Your Majesty, come
with Haman to a dinner I will prepare for you. And tomorrow I will answeryou, Your Majesty. If I have found favor with you, Your Majesty, and if itpleases you, Your Majesty, may you then grant my request and do what I
MEANWHILE, HAMAN IS DISGRACED BECAUSE OF MORDECAI
9When Haman left that day, he was happy and feeling good. But when
Haman saw Mordecai at the king’s gate, neither getting up nor trembling inhis presence, Haman was furious with Mordecai. 10However, Haman controlledhimself. He went home and sent for his friends and his wife Zeresh.
11Then Haman began to relate in detail to them how very rich he was, the
many sons he had, and all about how the king promoted him to a position overthe officials and the king’s advisers. 12Haman went on to say, “What’s more,Queen Esther allowed no one except me to come with the king to the dinnershe had prepared. And again tomorrow I am her invited guest together withthe king. 13Yet, all this is worth nothing to me every time I see Mordecai theJew sitting at the king’s gate.”
14Then his wife Zeresh and all his friends said to him, “Have a pole set up,
75 feet high, and in the morning ask the king to have Mordecai’s dead body
hung on it. Then go with the king to the dinner in good spirits.”
Haman liked the idea, so he had the pole set up.
61That night the king could not sleep. So he told a servant to bring the official
daily records, and they were read to the king. 2The records showed howMordecai had informed him that Bigthan and Teresh, two of the king’s eu-
nuchs who guarded the entrance, had plotted a rebellion against King Xerxes.
3The king asked, “How did I reward and promote Mordecai for this?”
The king’s personal staff replied, “Nothing was done for him.”
4The king asked, “Who is in the courtyard?” At that moment, Haman came
through the courtyard to the king’s palace to ask the king about hangingMordecai on the pole he had prepared for him.
5The king’s staff answered him, “Haman happens to be standing in the
“Let him come in,” the king said.
6So Haman came in. The king then asked him, “What should be done for
the man whom the king wishes to reward?”
Haman thought to himself, “Whom would the king wish to reward more
than me?” 7So Haman told the king, “This is what should be done: 8 The servants
should bring a royal robe that the king has worn and a horse that the king has
Was it a
ridden, one that has a royal crest on its head. 9Give the robe and the horse to
one of the king’s officials, who is a noble. Put the robe on the man whom the
that the king
king wishes to reward and have him ride on the horse in the city square. The
king’s servants are also to shout ahead of him, ‘This is what is done for the
once saved his
man whom the king wishes to reward.’ ”
10The king told Haman, “Hurry, take the robe and the horse as you said. Do
this for Mordecai the Jew who sits at the king’s gate. Do not omit anything
11So Haman took the robe and the horse. He put the robe on Mordecai and
had him ride in the city square, shouting ahead of him, “This is what is done
for the man whom the king wishes to reward.”
12After that, Mordecai returned to the king’s gate, but Haman hurried
home. He was in despair and covered his head. 13There, Haman began to
relate in detail to his wife Zeresh and to all his friends everything that had
happened to him. Then his counselors and his wife Zeresh told him, “You are
starting to lose power to Mordecai. If Mordecai is of Jewish descent, you will
never win out over him. He will certainly lead to your downfall.”
14While they were still speaking with him, the king’s eunuchs arrived and
quickly took Haman to the dinner Esther had prepared.
ESTHER BRINGS ABOUT HAMAN’S DOWNFALL71So the king and Haman came to have dinner with Queen Esther. 2On the
second day, while they were drinking wine, the king asked Esther, “Whatis your request, Queen Esther? It will be granted to you. And what
would you like? Even if it is up to half of the kingdom, it will be granted.”
3Then Queen Esther answered, “If I have found favor with you, Your Maj-
esty, and if it pleases you, Your Majesty, spare my life. That is my request. Andspare the life of my people. That is what I ask for. 4You see, we—my peopleand I—have been sold so that we can be wiped out, killed, and destroyed. Ifour men and women had only been sold as slaves, I would have kept silentbecause the enemy is not worth troubling you about, Your Majesty.”
5Then King Xerxes interrupted Queen Esther and said, “Who is this per-
son? Where is the person who has dared to do this?”
6Esther answered, “Our vicious enemy is this wicked man Haman!” Then
Haman became panic-stricken in the presence of the king and queen.
7The king was furious as he got up from dinner and went into the palace
garden. But Haman stayed to beg Queen Esther for his life, because he sawthat the king had a terrible end in mind for him. 8When the king returned fromthe palace garden to the palace dining room, Haman was falling on the couchwhere Esther was lying. The king thought, “Is he even going to rape the queenwhile I’m in the palace?” Then the king passed sentence on him, and servantscovered Haman’s face.
9Harbona, one of the eunuchs present with the king, said, “What a coinci-
dence! The 75-foot pole Haman made for Mordecai, who spoke up for thewell-being of the king, is still standing at Haman’s house.”
The king responded, “Hang him on it!” 10So servants hung Haman’s dead
body on the very pole he had prepared for Mordecai. Then the king got over
81On that same day King Xerxes gave the property of Haman, the enemy
of the Jews, to Queen Esther. Also, Mordecai came to the king becauseEsther had told him how Mordecai was related to her. 2Then the king
took off his signet ring, which he had taken from Haman, and gave it to Mordecai.
And Esther put Mordecai in charge of Haman’s property.
3Esther spoke again to the king. She fell down at his feet crying and begged
him to have mercy and to undo the evil plot of Haman, who was from Agag,and his conspiracy against the Jews. 4The king held out his golden scepter toEsther, and Esther got up and stood in front of the king. 5She said, “YourMajesty, if it pleases you, and if I have found favor with you, if you consider mycause to be reasonable and if I am pleasing to you, cancel the official orders
concerning the plot of Haman (who was the son of Hammedatha and was
from Agag). He signed the order to destroy the Jews in all your provinces, Your
Majesty. 6I cannot bear to see my people suffer such evil. And I simply cannotbear to see the destruction of my relatives.”
7King Xerxes said to Queen Esther and Mordecai the Jew, “I have given Ha-
man’s property to Esther, and Haman’s dead body was hung on the pole because
Why didn’t King
he tried to kill the Jews. 8You write what you think is best for the Jews in the king’s
name. Seal it also with the king’s signet ring, because whatever is written in
former order to
the king’s name and sealed with the king’s signet ring cannot be canceled.”
MORDECAI USES HIS POSITION TO SAVE THE JEWS
At that time on the twenty-third day of Sivan, the third month, the king’s
scribes were summoned. What Mordecai had ordered was written to the Jews
and to the satraps, governors, and officers of the 127 provinces from India to
Sudan. It was written to each province in its own script, to each people in their
own language, and to the Jews in their own script and their own language.
10Mordecai wrote in King Xerxes’ name and sealed the official documents
with the king’s signet ring. Then he sent them by messengers who rode spe-
cial horses bred for speed. He wrote 11that the king had given permission for
the Jews in every city to assemble, to defend themselves, to wipe out, to kill,
and to destroy every armed force of the people and province that is hostile to
them, even women and children, and to seize their goods. 12 This was permitted
on one day in all the provinces of King Xerxes, on the thirteenth day of Adar,the twelfth month. 13The copy of the document was made public in a decreeto every province for all people. On that day the Jews were to be ready to takerevenge on their enemies.
14The messengers rode the king’s fastest horses. They left quickly, in keep-
ing with the king’s command. The decree was issued also in the fortress of Susa.
15Mordecai went out from the presence of the king wearing the royal violet
and white robe, a large gold crown, and a purple outer robe of fine linen. Andthe city of Susa cheered and rejoiced.
16So the Jews were cheerful, happy, joyful, and successful. 17In every prov-
ince and every city where the king’s message and decree arrived, the Jewswere happy and joyful, feasting and enjoying a holiday. Then many commonpeople pretended to be Jews because they were terrified of the Jews.
THE JEWS DEFEND THEMSELVES91On the thirteenth day of Adar, the twelfth month, the king’s command
and decree were to be carried out. On that very day, when the enemiesof the Jews expected to overpower them, the exact opposite happened:
The Jews overpowered those who hated them.
2The Jews assembled in their cities throughout all the provinces of King
Xerxes to kill those who were planning to harm them. No one could stand upagainst them, because all the people were terrified of them. 3All the officialsof the provinces, the satraps, the governors, and the king’s treasurers assistedthe Jews because they were terrified of Mordecai. 4Mordecai was an impor-tant man in the king’s palace. Moreover, his reputation was spreading to allthe provinces, since Mordecai was becoming more and more powerful.
5Then with their swords, the Jews attacked all their enemies, killing them,
destroying them, and doing whatever they pleased to those who hated them.
6In the fortress of Susa the Jews killed and wiped out 500 men. 7They alsokilled Parshandatha, Dalphon, Aspatha, 8Poratha, Adalia, Aridatha, 9Parmashta,Arisai, Aridai, and Vaizatha. 10These were the ten sons of Haman, who was theson of Hammedatha and the enemy of the Jews. But the Jews did not seize anyof their possessions.
11On that day the number of those killed in the fortress of Susa was re-
ported to the king. 12So the king said to Queen Esther, “In the fortress of Susathe Jews have killed and wiped out 500 men and Haman’s 10 sons. What mustthey have done in the rest of the king’s provinces! Now, what is your request?It will be granted to you. And what else would you like? It, too, will be granted.”
How is Purim
13Esther said, “If it pleases you, Your Majesty, allow the Jews in Susa to do
tomorrow what was decreed for today. Let them hang Haman’s ten sons on
14The king commanded this, issuing a decree in Susa. And so they hung
15The Jews in Susa also assembled on the fourteenth day of the month of
Adar and killed 300 men in Susa, but they did not seize any of their posses-
sions. 16The other Jews who were in the king’s provinces had also assembled
to defend and free themselves from their enemies. They killed 75,000 of
those who hated them, but they did not seize any of their possessions. 17This
was on the thirteenth day of the month of Adar. On the fourteenth they
rested and made it a day of feasting and celebration. 18But the Jews in Susa had
assembled on the thirteenth and fourteenth. They rested on the fifteenth andmade it a day of feasting and celebration. 19That is why the Jews who live inthe villages and in the unwalled towns make the fourteenth day of the monthof Adar a holiday for feasting and celebration. They also send gifts of food toone another.
THE FESTIVAL OF PURIM INSTITUTEDBY ESTHER AND MORDECAI
20Now, Mordecai wrote these things down and sent official letters to all the
Jews in all the provinces of King Xerxes, near and far. 21He established thefourteenth and fifteenth days of the month of Adar as days they must observeevery year. 22They were to observe them just like the days when the Jewsfreed themselves from their enemies. In that month their grief turned to joyand their mourning into a holiday. He declared that these days are to be daysfor feasting and celebrating and for sending gifts of food to one another, espe-cially gifts to the poor.
23So the Jews accepted as tradition what they had begun, as Mordecai had
written to them. 24It was because Haman, the enemy of all the Jews, hadplotted against the Jews to destroy them. (Haman was the son of Hammedathaand was from Agag.) Haman had the Pur
(which means the lot
) thrown in
order to determine when to crush and destroy them. 25But when this came to
the king’s attention, he ordered, in the well-known letter, that the evil planHaman had plotted against the Jews should turn back on his own head. As aresult, they hung Haman and his sons on poles.
26So the Jews called these days Purim, based on the word Pur
because of everything that was said in this letter—both what they had seenand what had happened to them— 27the Jews established a tradition for them-selves and their descendants and for anyone who would join them. The tradi-tion was that a person should never fail to observe these two days every year,as they were described and at their appointed time. 28So these days must beremembered and observed in every age, family, province, and city. These daysof Purim must not be ignored among the Jews, and the importance of thesedays must never be forgotten by the generations to come.
29Abihail’s daughter Queen Esther and Mordecai the Jew wrote with full
authority in order to establish with this second letter the well-known celebra-tion of Purim. 30Mordecai sent official documents granting peace and securityto all the Jews in the 127 provinces of the kingdom of Xerxes. 31He did this inorder to establish these days of Purim at the appointed time. Mordecai the Jewand Queen Esther established them for themselves, as they had establishedfor themselves and their descendants the practices of fasting with sadness.
32Esther’s command had established these practices of Purim, and they are
schedule thatmake you feelanxious or over-whelmed. Ask him
101King Xerxes levied a tax on the country and the islands of the sea.
2All his acts of power and might along with the whole account of thegreatness of Mordecai, whom the king had promoted, are recorded in
the history of the kings of the Medes and Persians. 3Mordecai the Jew was
ranked second only to King Xerxes. He was greatly respected by, and popular
with, all of the other Jews, since he provided for the good of his people andspoke for the welfare of his fellow Jews.
Introduzione di Renzo Pascolat ai temi del Convegno AFE-CISL del 22 ottobre 2012,ore 16,Sala Tarantelli sede Cisl,via Ciconi,16 Udine: “REGIONE FVG ed ENTI LOCALI-RENDERE LE ISTITUZIONI MENO COSTOSE E PIU' EFFICACI”. Grazie a tutti voi per la presenza e ai relatori per il contributo che sul piano delle analisi e delle proposte certamente faranno nel corso dei loro interventi. Devo in a
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