Article master

Mastitis therapy:
To combine or not to
combine antibiotics?

by Dr Laurent Goby, Boehringer
Ingelheim Animal Health GmbH,
Jawetz's law on antimicrobial combination
Ingelheim, Germany.
Bactericidal + bactericidal: may be synergistic or additive.
Antibioticsareusuallypro- narrowspectrumagents(active Bacteriostatic + bacteriostatic: usually additive.
Bacteriostatic + bactericidal: may be antagonistic or indifferent.
nistic, indifferent or inefficacious.
either bactericidal or bacteriostatic.
Antimicrobial combinations
involving antibiotic resistant strains.
Fight against bacteria
Synergism can be defined as the positive interaction of two or more agents so that their combined effect is significantly greater than the expected sum of their individual effects (1 + 1 = 3).
Antagonism is a negative interaction between two drugs; the combined effect of their combination is significantly less than the sum of the respective effect when tested separately (1+1=1).
Additivity assumes that the result observed with more than one drug should be the sum of the separate effects of the drug being tested if those the activities of the individual agents.
drugs do not interact with one another (1+1=2).
nary medicine, it is still not very clear exceptions to the so-called ‘Jawetz’s Interactions investigated
Narrow spectrum of activity
A narrow spectrum antibiotic is effective against a relatively defined small subset of bacteria only a few Gram positive or Gram negative.
Penicillin is an example of an antibiotic possessing a highly efficient but narrow spectrum of activity, acting particularly against Gram positive bacte- ria (bacteria that have a cell wall composed of a thick layer of a particular substance that retains the colour of the crystal violet stain in the Gram stain. The Gram positive bacteria include staphylococci and streptococci.
Use of a narrow spectrum antibiotic allows an avoidance of some of the destruction of normal flora usually associated with antibiotic use.
International Dairy Topics — Volume 7 Number 5 Family of
Main target
of activity
compounds or compared to otherantibiotics. In most cases, compara- however, reported as being some-times associated with a lower rate of tial treatment). Proof of clinicallyimportant antimicrobial synergy of antibiotic combinations in anattempt to produce bactericidal syn- be used successfully to provide abroad spectrum of activity or in the References
● Gunnison J. B. et al (1953).
Studies on antibiotic synergism vitro of combinations of antibi-otics on bacteria of varying resis- treatment of clinical mastitis withone of three intramammary antibi- ● Mouton J. W. et al. (1999). Useof Pharmacodynamic Indices To Table 1. Antibacterial drugs used for mastitis treatment.
International Dairy Topics — Volume 7 Number 5


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