Deutsch Website, wo Sie Qualität und günstige Viagra Lieferung weltweit erwerben.

Zufrieden mit dem Medikament, hat mich die positive Meinung levitra kaufen Viagra empfahl mir der Arzt. Nahm eine Tablette etwa eine Stunde vor der Intimität, im Laufe der Woche.

Neural Integration II: The Autonomic Nervous
System and Higher-Order Functions
 Operates under conscious control  Seldom affects long-term survival  SNS controls skeletal muscles  Operates without conscious instruction  ANS controls visceral effectors  Coordinates system functions: cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive  Integrative centers
 For autonomic activity in hypothalamus  Neurons comparable to upper motor neurons in SNS  Visceral motor neurons
 In brain stem and spinal cord, are known as preganglionic neurons
 Preganglionic fibers:
– axons of preganglionic neurons
– leave CNS and synapse on ganglionic neurons
 Contain many ganglionic neurons  Ganglionic neurons innervate visceral effectors: – such as cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands, and adipose tissue  Operates largely outside our awareness  Has two divisions  Sympathetic division
– increases alertness, metabolic rate, and muscular abilities  Parasympathetic division
– reduces metabolic rate and promotes digestion  “Kicks in” only during exertion, stress, or emergency  Parasympathetic Division
 Controls during resting conditions  “Rest and digest”  Two divisions may work independently
 Some structures innervated by only one division  Two divisions may work together
 Each controlling one stage of a complex process  Sympathetic Division
 Preganglionic fibers (thoracic and superior lumbar; thoracolumbar) synapse in  Preganglionic fibers are short  Postganglionic fibers are long  Prepares body for crisis, producing a “fight or flight” response  Stimulates tissue metabolism  Increases alertness  Seven Responses to Increased Sympathetic Activity  Heightened mental alertness  Increased metabolic rate  Reduced digestive and urinary functions  Energy reserves activated  Increased respiratory rate and respiratory passageways dilate  Increased heart rate and blood pressure  Sweat glands activated  Parasympathetic Division
 Preganglionic fibers originate in brain stem and sacral segments of spinal cord;  Synapse in ganglia close to (or within) target organs  Preganglionic fibers are long  Postganglionic fibers are short  Rest and repose  Parasympathetic division stimulates visceral activity  Conserves energy and promotes sedentary activities  Decreased metabolic rate, heart rate, and blood pressure  Increased salivary and digestive glands secretion  Increased motility and blood flow in digestive tract  Urination and defecation stimulation  Enteric Nervous System (ENS)
 Third division of ANS  Extensive network in digestive tract walls  Complex visceral reflexes coordinated locally  Roughly 100 million neurons  All neurotransmitters are found in the brain  Preganglionic neurons located between segments T1 and L2 of spinal  Ganglionic neurons in ganglia near vertebral column  Cell bodies of preganglionic neurons in lateral gray horns  Axons enter ventral roots of segments  Ganglionic Neurons  Sympathetic chain ganglia  Collateral ganglia  Suprarenal medullae  Sympathetic chain ganglia
 Are on both sides of vertebral column  Control effectors: – in body wall – inside thoracic cavity – in head – in limbs  Collateral ganglia
 Are anterior to vertebral bodies  Contain ganglionic neurons that innervate tissues and organs in  Suprarenal (adrenal) medullae
 Very short axons
 When stimulated, release neurotransmitters into bloodstream (not at synapse)
 Function as hormones to affect target cells throughout body
 Are relatively short  Ganglia located near spinal cord  Are relatively long, except at suprarenal medullae Organization and Anatomy of the Sympathetic Division  Ventral roots of spinal segments T1–L2 contain sympathetic preganglionic  Give rise to myelinated white ramus
 Carry myelinated preganglionic fibers into sympathetic chain ganglion
 May synapse at collateral ganglia or in suprarenal medullae
 One preganglionic fiber synapses on many ganglionic neurons  Fibers interconnect sympathetic chain ganglia  Each ganglion innervates particular body segment(s)  Paths of unmyelinated postganglionic fibers depend on targets  Postganglionic fibers control visceral effectors  In body wall, head, neck, or limbs
 Enter gray ramus
 Return to spinal nerve for distribution
 Postganglionic fibers innervate effectors  Sweat glands of skin  Smooth muscles in superficial blood vessels  Postganglionic fibers innervating structures in thoracic cavity form bundles  Each sympathetic chain ganglia contains  3 cervical ganglia  10–12 thoracic ganglia  4–5 lumbar ganglia  4–5 sacral ganglia  1 coccygeal ganglion  Preganglionic neurons  Limited to spinal cord segments T1–L2  White rami (myelinated preganglionic fibers)  Innervate neurons in – cervical, inferior lumbar, and sacral sympathetic chain ganglia
 Chain ganglia provide postganglionic fibers  Through gray rami (unmyelinated postganglionic fibers)  To cervical, lumbar, and sacral spinal nerves  Only spinal nerves T1–L2 have white rami  That carries sympathetic postganglionic fibers for distribution in body wall  In head and neck leave superior cervical sympathetic ganglia  Supply the regions and structures innervated by cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X  Collateral Ganglia
 Receive sympathetic innervation via sympathetic preganglionic fibers  Splanchnic nerves  Formed by preganglionic fibers that innervate collateral ganglia  In dorsal wall of abdominal cavity  Originate as paired ganglia (left and right)  Usually fuse together in adults  Leave collateral ganglia  Extend throughout abdominopelvic cavity  Innervate variety of visceral tissues and organs: – reduction of blood flow and energy by organs not vital to short-term survival – release of stored energy reserves  Preganglionic fibers from seven inferior thoracic segments  End at celiac ganglion or superior mesenteric ganglion
 Ganglia embedded in network of autonomic nerves
 Preganglionic fibers from lumbar segments  Form splanchnic nerves
 End at inferior mesenteric ganglion
 Pair of interconnected masses of gray matter  May form single mass or many interwoven masses  Postganglionic fibers innervate stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and  Near base of superior mesenteric artery  Postganglionic fibers innervate small intestine and proximal 2/3 of large  Near base of inferior mesenteric artery  Postganglionic fibers provide sympathetic innervation to portions of large intestine, kidney, urinary bladder, and sex organs  Suprarenal Medullae
 Preganglionic fibers entering suprarenal gland proceed to center (suprarenal  Modified sympathetic ganglion  Preganglionic fibers synapse on neuroendocrine cells  Specialized neurons secrete hormones into bloodstream  Neuroendocrine cells of suprarenal medullae  Secrete neurotransmitters epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE)
 Epinephrine:
– also called adrenaline
– is 75–80% of secretory output
 Bloodstream carries neurotransmitters through body  Causing changes in metabolic activities of different cells including cells not innervated by sympathetic postganglionic fibers  Hormones continue to diffuse out of bloodstream  Change activities of tissues and organs by  Releasing NE at peripheral synapses: – target specific effectors: smooth muscle fibers in blood vessels of skin – are activated in reflexes – do not involve other visceral effectors  Distributing E and NE throughout body in bloodstream: – entire division responds (sympathetic activation) – are controlled by sympathetic centers in hypothalamus – effects are not limited to peripheral tissues – alters CNS activity  Increased alertness  Feelings of energy and euphoria  Change in breathing  Elevation in muscle tone  Mobilization of energy reserves  Stimulation of Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons  Releases ACh at synapses with ganglionic neurons  Excitatory effect on ganglionic neurons  Release neurotransmitters at specific target organs  Form branching networks of telodendria instead of synaptic knobs
 Telodendria form sympathetic varicosities:
– resemble string of pearls
– swollen segment packed with neurotransmitter vesicles
– pass along or near surface of effector cells
– no specialized postsynaptic membranes
– membrane receptors on surfaces of target cells
 Some ganglionic neurons release ACh instead:
– are located in body wall, skin, brain, and skeletal muscles – called cholinergic neurons  Sympathetic Stimulation and the Release of NE and E  Primarily from interactions of NE and E with two types of adrenergic membrane  Alpha receptors (NE more potent)  Beta receptors  Activates enzymes on inside of cell membrane via G proteins
Alpha-1 (α1)
 More common type of alpha receptor  Releases intracellular calcium ions from reserves in endoplasmic reticulum  Has excitatory effect on target cell  Alpha-2 (α2)
 Lowers cAMP levels in cytoplasm  Has inhibitory effect on the cell  Helps coordinate sympathetic and parasympathetic activities  Beta (β) receptors
 Affect membranes in many organs (skeletal muscles, lungs, heart, and liver)  Trigger metabolic changes in target cell  Stimulation increases intracellular cAMP levels  Beta-1 (β1)
Beta-2 (β2)
 Triggers relaxation of smooth muscles along respiratory tract  Beta-3 (β3)
 Leads to lipolysis, the breakdown of triglycerides in adipocytes
 Sympathetic Stimulation and the Release of ACh and NO  Cholinergic (ACh) sympathetic terminals  Innervate sweat glands of skin and blood vessels of skeletal muscles and brain  Stimulate sweat gland secretion and dilate blood vessels  Release nitric oxide (NO) as neurotransmitter
 Neurons innervate smooth muscles in walls of blood vessels in skeletal
 Produce vasodilation and increased blood flow  Are contained in the mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata  associated with cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X In lateral gray horns of spinal segments S  Ganglionic Neurons in Peripheral Ganglia  Terminal ganglion
 Near target organ  Usually paired  Intramural ganglion
 Embedded in tissues of target organ  Interconnected masses  Clusters of ganglion cells Organization and Anatomy of the Parasympathetic  Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers leave brain as components of cranial nerves  III (oculomotor)  VII (facial)  IX (glossopharyngeal)  X (vagus)  Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers leave spinal cord at sacral level  Oculomotor, Facial, and Glossopharyngeal Nerves  Control visceral structures in head
 Synapse in ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia
 Short postganglionic fibers continue to their peripheral targets
 Provides preganglionic parasympathetic innervation to structures in  Neck  Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity as distant as a distal portion of large intestine  Provides 75% of all parasympathetic outflow  Branches intermingle with fibers of sympathetic division  Preganglionic fibers carry sacral parasympathetic output  Do not join ventral roots of spinal nerves, instead form pelvic nerves  Pelvic nerves innervate intramural ganglia in walls of kidneys, urinary bladder, portions of
 Centers on relaxation, food processing, and energy absorption  Localized effects, last a few seconds at most  Major effects of parasympathetic division include  Constriction of pupils
Secretion by digestive glands
Secretion of hormones
Changes in blood flow and glandular activity
 Major effects of parasympathetic division include  Increase in smooth muscle activity along digestive tract
 Defecation: stimulation and coordination
 Contraction of urinary bladder during urination
 Constriction of respiratory passageways
 Reduction in heart rate and force of contraction

 Stimulation increases nutrient content of blood  Cells absorb nutrients  Neuromuscular and Neuroglandular Junctions  All release ACh as neurotransmitter  Small, with narrow synaptic clefts  Effects of stimulation are short lived  Inactivated by AChE at synapse
 ACh is also inactivated by pseudocholinesterase (tissue cholinesterase) in surrounding
Nicotinic receptors
 On surfaces of ganglion cells (sympathetic and parasympathetic): – exposure to ACh causes excitation of ganglionic neuron or muscle fiber  Muscarinic receptors
 At cholinergic neuromuscular or neuroglandular junctions (parasympathetic)  At few cholinergic junctions (sympathetic)  G proteins: – effects are longer lasting than nicotinic receptors – response reflects activation or inactivation of specific enzymes – can be excitatory or inhibitory  Dangerous environmental toxins
 Produce exaggerated, uncontrolled responses  Nicotine: – binds to nicotinic receptors – targets autonomic ganglia and skeletal neuromuscular junctions – 50 mg ingested or absorbed through skin – signs: ª vomiting, diarrhea, high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, sweating, profuse salivation,  Dangerous Environmental Toxins (cont’d)  Produce exaggerated, uncontrolled responses  Muscarine  Binds to muscarinic receptors  Targets parasympathetic neuromuscular or neuroglandular junctions  Signs and symptoms: – salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constriction of respiratory passages, low blood pressure, slow  Widespread impact  Reaches organs and tissues throughout body  Innervates only specific visceral structures  Most vital organs receive instructions from both sympathetic and parasympathetic  Two divisions commonly have opposing effects  Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers accompany cranial nerves to  Sympathetic innervation reaches same structures by traveling directly from superior cervical ganglia of sympathetic chain  Nerve networks in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities: – are formed by mingled sympathetic postganglionic fibers and parasympathetic  Travel with blood and lymphatic vessels that supply visceral organs  Cardiac plexus  Pulmonary plexus  Esophageal plexus  Celiac plexus  Inferior mesenteric plexus  Hypogastric plexus  Autonomic fibers entering thoracic cavity intersect  Contain  Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers for heart and lungs  Parasympathetic ganglia whose output affects those organs  Descending branches of vagus nerve  Splanchnic nerves leaving sympathetic chain  Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers of vagus nerve enter abdominopelvic cavity  Fibers enter celiac plexus (solar plexus)  Associated with smaller plexuses, such as inferior mesenteric
 Innervates viscera within abdominal cavity  Parasympathetic outflow of pelvic nerves  Sympathetic postganglionic fibers from inferior mesenteric ganglion  Splanchnic nerves from sacral sympathetic chain  Innervates digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs of pelvic cavity  Autonomic Tone
 Is an important aspect of ANS function  If nerve is inactive under normal conditions, can only increase activity  If nerve maintains background level of activity, can increase or decrease  Maintain resting level of spontaneous activity  Background level of activation determines autonomic tone  Significant where dual innervation occurs  More important when dual innervation does not occur  The heart receives dual innervation
 Two divisions have opposing effects
 Acetylcholine released by postganglionic fibers slows heart rate  NE released by varicosities accelerates heart rate  Autonomic tone is present  Releases small amounts of both neurotransmitters continuously  The heart receives dual innervation
 Parasympathetic innervation dominates under resting conditions  Crisis accelerates heart rate by  Stimulation of sympathetic innervation  Inhibition of parasympathetic innervation  Blood vessel dilates and blood flow increases  Blood vessel constricts and blood flow is reduced  Sympathetic postganglionic fibers release NE  Innervate smooth muscle cells in walls of peripheral vessels  Background sympathetic tone keeps muscles partially contracted  To increase blood flow  Rate of NE release decreases  Sympathetic cholinergic fibers are stimulated  Smooth muscle cells relax  Vessels dilate and blood flow increases Visceral Reflexes Regulate Autonomic Function  Centers in all portions of CNS  Lowest level regulatory control  Lower motor neurons of cranial and spinal visceral reflex arcs  Pyramidal motor neurons of primary motor cortex  Operating with feedback from cerebellum and basal nuclei  Provide automatic motor responses
 Can be modified, facilitated, or inhibited by higher centers, especially
 Receptor  Sensory neuron  Processing center (one or more interneurons):  Autonomic equivalents of polysynaptic reflexes  Visceral sensory neurons deliver information to CNS along dorsal roots of spinal nerves: – within sensory branches of cranial nerves – within autonomic nerves that innervate visceral effectors  ANS carries motor commands to visceral effectors  Coordinate activities of entire organ  Bypass CNS  Involve sensory neurons and interneurons located within autonomic ganglia  Interneurons synapse on ganglionic neurons  Motor commands distributed by postganglionic fibers  Control simple motor responses with localized effects  One small part of target organ – short reflexes provide most control and coordination  Ganglia in the walls of digestive tract contain cell bodies of: – visceral sensory neurons – interneurons – visceral motor neurons  Axons form extensive nerve nets  Control digestive functions independent of CNS  Simple reflexes from spinal cord provide rapid and automatic responses
 Complex reflexes coordinated in medulla oblongata
 Contains centers and nuclei involved in: – salivation – swallowing – digestive secretions – peristalsis – urinary function  The Integration of SNS and ANS Activities  Many parallels in organization and function
 Integration at brain stem
 Both systems under control of higher centers  Require the cerebral cortex
 Involve conscious and unconscious information processing
 Not part of programmed “wiring” of brain
 Can adjust over time
 Memory
Fact memories
Skill memories
 Learned motor behaviors  Incorporated at unconscious level with repetition  Programmed behaviors stored in appropriate area of brain stem  Complex are stored and involve motor patterns in the basal nuclei, cerebral cortex, and  Short–term memories
 Information that can be recalled immediately  Contain small bits of information  Long-term memories
 Memory consolidation: conversion from short-term to long-term memory: – secondary memories fade and require effort to recall – tertiary memories are with you for life  Brain Regions Involved in Memory Consolidation and Access  Amygdaloid body and hippocampus  Nucleus basalis  Cerebral cortex  Amygdaloid body and hippocampus
 Are essential to memory consolidation  Damage may cause  Inability to convert short-term memories to new long-term memories  Existing long-term memories remain intact and accessible  Nucleus Basalis
 Cerebral nucleus near diencephalon  Plays uncertain role in memory storage and retrieval  Tracts connect with hippocampus, amygdaloid body, and cerebral cortex  Damage changes emotional states, memory, and intellectual functions  Cerebral cortex
 Stores long-term memories  Conscious motor and sensory memories referred to association areas  Special portions crucial to memories of faces, voices, and words  A specific neuron may be activated by combination of sensory stimuli associated with particular individual; called “grandmother cells”  Visual association area  Auditory association area  Speech center  Frontal lobes  Related information stored in other locations  If storage area is damaged, memory will be incomplete  Cellular Mechanisms of Memory Formation and Storage  Involves anatomical and physiological changes in neurons and  Increased neurotransmitter release
Facilitation at synapses
Formation of additional synaptic connections
Increased Neurotransmitter Release
 Frequently active synapse increases the amount of neurotransmitter it  Releases more on each stimulation  The more neurotransmitter released, the greater effect on postsynaptic  Facilitation at Synapses
 Neural circuit repeatedly activated  Synaptic terminals begin continuously releasing neurotransmitter  Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane  Produces graded depolarization  Brings membrane closer to threshold  Facilitation results affect all neurons in circuit  Formation of Additional Synaptic Connections
 Neurons repeatedly communicating  Axon tip branches and forms additional synapses on postsynaptic neuron  Presynaptic neuron has greater effect on transmembrane potential of postsynaptic  Cellular Mechanisms of Memory Formation and Storage  Basis of memory storage
 Processes create anatomical changes  Facilitate communication along specific neural circuit  Memory Engram
 Single circuit corresponds to single memory  Forms as result of experience and repetition  Cellular Mechanisms of Memory Formation and Storage  Efficient conversion of short-term memory
 Takes at least 1 hour  Repetition crucial  Factors of conversion
 Nature, intensity, and frequency of original stimulus  Strong, repeated, and exceedingly pleasant or unpleasant events likely converted to long-term  Caffeine and nicotine are examples:
– enhance memory consolidation through facilitation  NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate) Receptors: – linked to consolidation
– chemically gated calcium channels
– activated by neurotransmitter glycine
– gates open, calcium enters cell
– blocking NMDA receptors in hippocampus prevents long-term memory formation
 Many gradations of states
 Degree of wakefulness indicates level of ongoing CNS activity
 When abnormal or depressed, state of wakefulness is affected
Deep sleep
 Also called slow-wave sleep  Entire body relaxes  Cerebral cortex activity minimal  Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and energy utilization decline up to  Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
 Active dreaming occurs  Changes in blood pressure and respiratory rate  Less receptive to outside stimuli than in deep sleep  Muscle tone decreases markedly  Intense inhibition of somatic motor neurons  Eyes move rapidly as dream events unfold  Nighttime sleep pattern
 Alternates between levels  Begins in deep sleep  REM periods average 5 minutes in length; increase to 20 minutes over 8 hours  Has important impact on CNS
 Produces only minor changes in physiological activities of organs and systems
 Protein synthesis in neurons increases during sleep
 Extended periods without sleep lead to disturbances in mental function
 25% of U.S. population experiences sleep disorders
Arousal and the reticular activating system (RAS)
 Awakening from sleep  Function of reticular formation: – extensive interconnections with sensory, motor, integrative nuclei, and pathways along brain stem  Determined by complex interactions between reticular formation and cerebral cortex  Reticular Activating System (RAS)
 Important brain stem component
 Diffuse network in reticular formation
 Extends from medulla oblongata to mesencephalon
 Output of RAS projects to thalamic nuclei that influence large areas of cerebral
 When RAS inactive, so is cerebral cortex  Stimulation of RAS produces widespread activation of cerebral cortex  Arousal and the Reticular Activating System  Any stimulus activates reticular formation and RAS  Arousal occurs rapidly  Effects of single stimulation of RAS last less than a minute  Activity in cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, and sensory and motor pathways continue to stimulate – after many hours, reticular formation becomes less responsive to stimulation – individual becomes less alert and more lethargic – neural fatigue reduces RAS activity  Involves interplay between brain stem nuclei that use different neurotransmitters  Group of nuclei stimulates RAS with NE and maintains awake, alert state  Other group promotes deep sleep by depressing RAS activity with serotonin  “Dueling” nuclei located in brain stem  Destruction of ACh-secreting and GABA-secreting neurons in basal nuclei  Symptoms appear as basal nuclei and frontal lobes slowly degenerate  Difficulty controlling movements  Intellectual abilities gradually decline  Powerful hallucinogenic drug
 Activates serotonin receptors in brain stem, hypothalamus, and limbic
 Compounds that enhance effects also produce hallucinations (LSD)  Compounds that inhibit or block action cause severe depression and  Variations in levels affect sensory interpretation and emotional states  Fluoxetine (Prozac)  Slows removal of serotonin at synapses  Increases serotonin concentrations at postsynaptic membrane  Classified as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)  Other SSRIs:  Inadequate dopamine production causes motor problems
 Dopamine
 Secretion stimulated by amphetamines, or “speed”  Large doses can produce symptoms resembling schizophrenia  Important in nuclei that control intentional movements  Important in other centers of diencephalon and cerebrum  Anatomical and physiological changes begin after maturity (age  Accumulate over time  85% of people over age 65 have changes in mental  Decrease in volume of cerebral cortex  Narrower gyri and wider sulci  Larger subarachnoid space  Brain shrinkage linked to loss of cortical neurons  No neuronal loss in brain stem nuclei  Fatty deposits in walls of blood vessels  Reduces blood flow through arteries  Increases chances of rupture  Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke  May damage surrounding neural tissue  Changes in Synaptic Organization of Brain  Number of dendritic branches, spines, and interconnections decreases  Synaptic connections lost  Rate of neurotransmitter production declines  Intracellular and Extracellular Changes in CNS Neurons  Neurons in brain accumulate abnormal intracellular deposits  Lipofuscin  Granular pigment with no known function  Masses of neurofibrils form dense mats inside cell body and axon  Intracellular and Extracellular Changes in CNS Neurons  Extracellular accumulations of fibrillar proteins  Surrounded by abnormal dendrites and axons  Contain deposits of several peptides  Primarily two forms of amyloid ß (Aß) protein  Appear in brain regions specifically associated with memory processing  Linked to functional changes  Neural processing becomes less efficient with age  Memory consolidation more difficult  Secondary memories harder to access  Hearing, balance, vision, smell, and taste become less acute  Reaction times slowed  Reflexes weaken or disappear  Precision decreases  Takes longer to perform  85% of elderly population develops changes that do not interfere with  Some individuals become incapacitated by progressive CNS changes  Also called senile dementia  Degenerative changes  Memory loss  Anterograde amnesia (lose ability to store new memories)  Emotional disturbances  Monitors all other systems  Issues commands that adjust their activities  Like conductor of orchestra  Neural Tissue  Extremely delicate  Extracellular environment must maintain homeostatic limits  If regulatory mechanisms break down, neurological disorders appear  Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease  Physicians trace source of specific problem  Evaluate sensory, motor, behavioral, and cognitive functions of


Industry english - mar 7.indd Pricing | New Products | Formulary News | DIN Changes | Packaging Company News DIHYDROERGOTAMINE (DHE) 1MG/ML PRAXIS® DESLORATADINE ALLERGY CONTROL 5 MG IS NOW SteriMax Inc. wishes to remind pharmacists that Dihydroergotamine LISTED BY THE NIHB PROGRAM (DHE) 1mg/ml (DIN 00027243, UPC 834324000091) is in stock and Pendoph


ORIGINAL ARTICLE Blood Pressure Management in Acute Stroke: Comparison of Current Guidelines with Prescribing Patterns Salmann Kanji, Céline Corman, Andre G. Douen ABSTRACT: Objective: Current recommendations for treating elevated blood pressure (BP) in the acute stroke are based largely on expert opinion and vary with regard to treatment thresholds and choice of antihypertensive agen

Copyright © 2010-2014 Health Drug Pdf