1 Exam Practice
Touring a city usually means being taken round by a guide in a group or going to the famous sights on your own withthe help of a guidebook. However, if you’re planning on visiting Rome, there is now a new and entertaining way ofseeing it. This new way turns a visit to the Eternal City into an exciting game with the use of a mobile phone anda guidebook known as The Ruyi, written by Alberto Toso Fei.
The game focuses on a hunt for the Ruyi, a mythical magic sceptre. In Fei’s story, Marco Polo, the famous explorer,steals the sceptre from Kublai Khan, the Chinese emperor. To “find” the sceptre, players have to answer questionsusing clues sent as text messages to their mobile phones. By using the clues, players identify and then visit famouslandmarks in the city, such as the Colosseum. They learn about the sights as the search for the Ruyi continues.
The entries in the guidebook that describe the places to visit cannot be understood without the help of a special code. To obtain the code, players have to send a text message to a phone number given in the guidebook. The code helpsplayers make sense of the entry and identify the sight they will visit. When players reach the landmark, they receiveanother text message containing a question. The answer to this question can be found at the sight. Players text thecorrect reply and get a new code for the next sight. And so the hunt continues.
The clues can lead to any of 60 landmarks and monuments throughout Rome. The players visit both the famoussights of the city, as well as some lesser known ones that they might not visit on a normal tour of Rome. The gamecan last from two to nine hours, and may be played alone or in teams.
Of course, the Ruyi is never found. However, this shouldn’t bother those who take part in the hunt for the mythicalsceptre. The real treasure is experiencing a fun, new way to visit the Eternal City. Choose the correct answer. Rewrite the sentences without changing their original meaning.
1. A visit to Rome becomes an exciting game
A mobile phone and a guidebook are used to make a visit to Rome an exciting game
2. Entries in the guidebook cannot be understood
c. understand what’s written in the guidebook
The players cannot understand the entries in the guidebook without a special code.
3. Players text the correct reply and get a new code
4. According to the author, the true reward is . .
Players move on by texting the correct reply and getting a new code Write a composition of about 100-150 words in your notebook. Choose ONE option. Find words or expressions in the text that mean:
1. A for and against essay: The advantages
and disadvantages of going on an organised
2. A description: Describe a city that you have
make sense Accept all logical and grammatically take part correct answers. Exam Practice 2 Exam Practice
A small two-door car, a family-sized saloon, a van or a petrol-electric hybrid? Most people don’t change their carevery day. But members of car-sharing schemes can select the car most suitable for their needs for every singlejourney they make.
Car-sharing schemes, or car clubs as they are known in Britain, now exist in over 600 cities worldwide. Althoughdetails vary, most clubs operate in roughly the same way. After their driving record is approved, members joinby paying a fee. Then, usually by phone or over the Internet, they may book any car belonging to their scheme,collecting it from, and returning it to, any designated location. Often, the membership card itself unlocks the car. Payment is based on the time reserved and the kilometres driven.
Joining a club offers members many advantages. First, they usually save money, because they don’t have to pay forinsurance, maintenance or petrol. Second, many members find that their health improves; they often walk or cycle asan alternative to driving on short journeys. Third, parking is easier, as more cities reserve special spaces for car-clubvehicles. Finally, there is prestige – clubs provide newer and better models of cars than many members could affordto own.
Car-sharing schemes also benefit society as a whole. One club claims that each of its 28 vehicles replaces the needfor between five and eight privately owned cars, reducing carbon emissions by approximately 320 tons annually. Less traffic also lowers urban noise levels and the appearance of local neighbourhoods may improve too, as moregardens and fewer garages appear.
These schemes don’t suit everyone. Some people need to know that their own car is waiting for them outside theirhome. Others who drive long distances for work may find that owning a private car is cheaper. But for drivers who
don’t mind putting a little thought into planning their journeys in order to help themselves and the environment, carclubs are an ideal solution. Choose the correct answer. Rewrite the sentences without changing their
1. Members of car-sharing schemes . . original meaning.
a. can select a suitable vehicle for every journey
1. Car clubs provide new and better models of
New and better models of cars are provided by car clubs.
must always pick up and return the car to
2. Others find that owning a private car is cheaper.
Others find that it is cheaper to own
are often able to reserve their car without
a private car. Find words in the text that mean:
generally find it less expensive than owning
usually get a discount on their car repairs
can often borrow bicycles as well as cars
Write a composition of about 100-150 words in your notebook. Choose ONE option. Answer the question.
1. A for and against essay: What is your ideal
Car clubs help the environment by reducing carbon emissions by approximately 320 tons annually. Accept all logical and grammatically correct answers. 3 Exam Practice
Making friends used to be a matter of going out and meeting people. Nowadays, thanks to Facebook, you can meetnew people without having to leave the comfort of your computer chair.
Facebook was launched in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, a student at Harvard University who has since been describedas “the youngest billionaire on Earth”.
Membership was initially restricted to Harvard students. The site became an overnight success and was eventuallyopened up to the general public. Today, anyone over the age of 13 with a valid e-mail address can join Facebook. It’s free to users, but makes a profit from online advertising.
When people sign up for Facebook, they create a personal profile and can choose to join one or more networks, forexample, their school or workplace. Users can gain access to their friends’ profiles and connect with them. Facebookusers may also discover that they are only two or three clicks away from re-establishing contact with friends from thepast.
Many kinds of friendships are maintained through Facebook, but some which are out of the ordinary may be formedas well. For example, you can make “friends” with people you have communicated with through e-mail but havenever met in person. All you have to do is find their profiles on Facebook and ask them to be your “friends”. Peoplecollect hundreds of “friends” and thereby give the impression that they are popular.
So, has Facebook changed the notion of what it is to be a friend? Once, you would choose your friends from amongstthe people you saw regularly. They were those you had the most in common with and who you could share yourfeelings with. They were ready to help you and you were always ready to help them in return.
Is Facebook a sign of what will happen to society in the future? Will people give up the challenges of true friendshipin favour of computer-generated relationships on sites such as Facebook? Virtual friends, after all, will neverdisappoint you. Choose the correct answer. Answer the question.
1. In the early days of Facebook, . .
How is making friends today different from how it
only Mark Zuckerberg’s friends could register
Because in the past you had to go out and meet people while today you can make friends at home through your computer. Find words or expressions in the text that launched
is always someone that you meet regularly
Rewrite the sentences without changing their original meaning. out of the ordinary
Zuckerberg. He was a student at HarvardUniversity. Write a composition of about 100-150 words
Mark Zuckerberg, who was a student at in your notebook. Choose ONE option. Harvard University, launched Facebook
1. A for and against essay: The advantages and
2. Zuckerberg has been described as “the youngest
disadvantages of making friends on Facebook.
2. An opinion essay: Does real friendship mean
People have described Zuckerberg as
spending time with people face-to-face? Explain. “the youngest billionaire on Earth”. Accept all logical and grammatically correct answers. Exam Practice 4 Exam Practice
English spelling is very difficult. This is a problem that faces not only non-native speakers but many native speakersas well.
Why is English spelling so problematic? Many English words are spelt differently from the way that they sound,such as the word “laugh”. There are also many homophones, which are words that sound the same but are speltdifferently, for example, “right” and “write”. In addition, there are words which contain silent letters, for instance theletter “k” in the word “know”. For these reasons, the only way to improve your spelling in English is to memorise allthe words that are difficult to spell.
Computer spellcheckers should have solved spelling problems. They detect misspelt words and, in certain cases,even correct them automatically. However, spellcheckers are far from perfect. When they cannot automaticallycorrect a word, they give users a list of alternative words to choose from. This is helpful as long as users knowwhich word they are looking for, or if the intended word is on the list. In addition, computer spellcheckers willonly spot an error if the word doesn’t exist in their word banks. For instance, if you type “Eye did knot go the writeweigh”, spellcheckers will not be able to detect any of the mistakes. Although all the words in this sentence are speltcorrectly, it makes no sense.
However, technology may now have found a way of solving these problems. A hi-tech company, Ginger Software,has developed a program that doesn’t just spot mistyped words, but also uses context and grammatical structure tocorrect mistakes. Its developers have tried to make its working processes as close to those of natural language aspossible. If it’s successful, Ginger Software’s new program should be able to find the errors in the sentence “Eye didknot go the write weigh”, and correct it to “I did not go the right way”. Choose the correct answer. Find words or expressions in the text that for instance Answer the question.
Why can’t regular spellcheckers always help people
3. The new program is unique because it . . Spellcheckers only give a list of alternative words to choose from so the user must know the word he’s looking for. In addition,
memorises words that are difficult to spell
it will only spot an error if the word doesn’t exist in their word bank. 5. Write a composition of about 100-150 words Rewrite the sentences without changing their in your notebook. Choose ONE option. original meaning.
1. An opinion essay: Do you think it’s important
1. Computer spellcheckers should have solved the
to have English spelling tests? Explain why or
The problem should have been solved
2. An opinion essay: What aspect of learning
by computer spellcheckers.
English is the most difficult for you? Explain.
2. Spellcheckers will only spot an error if the word
Accept all logical and grammatically
doesn’t exist in their word banks. correct answers.
Unless the word exists in their word banks, spellcheckers won’t spot an error. 5 Exam Practice
Students usually go to university to obtain a degree in physics, economics or history. But in Britain, it’s now possibleto get a university degree in less traditional subjects, including equestrian studies, aromatherapy and the unusualmixture of outdoor adventure with philosophy.
These degrees are known informally as “Mickey Mouse” degrees. Taken from the name of the cartoon character,anything termed “Mickey Mouse” is considered lightweight or amateurish. In Britain, the term also has morenegative connotations, and may be used to describe something of inferior quality. But are these degrees, often offeredat newly created universities, really inferior to degrees in more conventional subjects from more establisheduniversities?
People in favour of these degrees say that society benefits from having a large number of university graduates in anyfield because studying promotes a love of learning and respect for education. They also claim that these new coursesrequire serious study. For example, surfing studies includes meteorology, biology and business.
In addition to the social benefits, there are also financial ones. University graduates generally earn more, which isgood for the economy. Proponents claim that these new degrees are responding to demands from students andemployers. Specific training enables graduates to find jobs easily and companies are confident that they will employpeople with the essential skills. For example, graduates with golf management degrees can work in the sports andleisure industry.
However, opponents of these degrees claim that training in fields like floristry design or baking technology should beacquired both on the job and at technical schools; universities exist to further knowledge rather than to help peoplefind jobs. They say that politicians want to increase the number of university graduates, and opening these “MickeyMouse” courses achieves this without maintaining high educational standards. They also argue that if these degreeswere abolished, more scholarship money would be available to those studying “real” university subjects.
So, are Mickey Mouse degrees a helpful innovation or a waste of time? Before we make up our minds, perhaps weshould remember that many academic subjects which are respected today were criticised when they first appeared –including English literature, when it was first taught at an English university in 1828. Decide if the following sentences are true (T) Answer the question. or false (F). Find evidence in the text to justify
Why does the writer mention English literature?
your answers. It is an example of an academic subject that T 1. A “Mickey Mouse” degree is perceived as was criticised when it first appeared. “… anything termed ‘Mickey Mouse’ is considered lightweight or Find words or expressions in the text that amateurish.” F 2. Mickey Mouse degrees don’t give students
any specific skills they need for jobs.
2. not serious (paragraph 2)amateurish, lightweight “Specific training enables graduates to find jobs easily, and companies are confident that they will employ people with the essential skills.” essential F 3. Opponents of Mickey Mouse degrees think make up our minds
that baking skills shouldn’t be studied. “However, opponents of these degrees Write a composition of about 100-150 words claim that training in fields like floristry design or baking technology should in your notebook. Choose ONE option. be acquired both on the job and at
1. An opinion essay: Is a Mickey Mouse degree
technical schools …” Complete the sentences using the information
a waste of time? Explain your answer. given in the text.
2. An opinion essay: The purpose of studying
1. Employers are pleased with graduates of
at university is to get a job. Do you agree or
they train students with essential skills they need . for certain jobs Accept all logical and grammatically
2. Politicians are in favour of Mickey Mouse
correct answers. they want to increase the number of university graduates Exam Practice 6 Exam Practice
Imagine the following scene: a firefighter runs into a blazing building to save the people trapped inside. Back at thecommand centre, his vital signs are being monitored and GPS readings indicate his exact positioning in the building. This will soon be a reality because of a new, state-of-the-art uniform that contains hi-tech fabrics which can transmitthis vital information.
The European Commission has invested ¼50 million to develop these smart fabrics and interactive textiles. The technology, which was initially developed in the United States, has been adopted by the EU in order to save theEuropean textile industry, which has been badly affected by competition from Asian markets.
University researchers, hi-tech companies and textile manufacturers are working together throughout the EU toproduce models of smart-fabric items. These include a shirt that can check the heart rate of cardiac patients andsports clothes that can monitor an athlete’s breathing with the use of microcomputers and solar panels.
One of the main problems at the moment, however, is the limited market for such products. Smart fabrics could bemost beneficial in the medical field, where they could save many lives each year. However, it could take up to tenyears for each product to become an approved medical device.
A further problem is the cost of these products. How much will a family be able and willing to pay for a baby suitthat can detect sudden infant death syndrome? This type of product could potentially prevent a terrible tragedy fromoccurring, yet how many parents will actually be able to afford it?
Most of the developers’ hopes for promoting hi-tech clothing are with the sports industry. The huge amount ofadvertising by popular sportswear companies and the employment of well-known sports stars to advertise their
products means that this industry could easily persuade consumers to accept these expensive new technologies. Developers, therefore, are considering adapting the smart-clothes technology for rescue workers to the world of
sport. Who knows? In another few years, your tracksuit might do a lot more than help you enjoy a run in the park. Choose the correct answer. Answer the questions.
1. What are the problems of smart-fabric items?
The main problems of smart-fabric items are their price, their limited market and the
a firefighter is monitoring his vital signs
fact that it could take up to ten years for each smart-fabric product to gain approval.
it’s possible to know where a firefighter is
2. Why do the developers of smart-fabric items
think that the sports industry is the best field in
2. A shirt is being developed that can . . Because the sports industry is an area that has had success in promoting new and expensive technologies. 4. Find words or expressions in the text that Decide if the following sentences are true (T) or false (F). Find evidence in the text to justify your answers. T 1. Smart fabrics were originally developed in initially beneficial “The technology, which was initially developed in the United States …” T 2. The writer questions whether high-tech Write a composition of about 100-150 words
baby suits will actually save lives. in your notebook. Choose ONE option. “This type of product could potentially prevent a terrible tragedy from
1. An opinion essay: Do you think it’s fair when
occurring, yet how many parents will actually be able to afford it?”
2. An opinion essay: Do you believe that monitoring
an athlete with smart clothes technology is aninvasion of privacy? Explain your answer. Accept all logical and grammatically correct answers. 7 Exam Practice
Do you feel better after going for a walk in the park or watching a beautiful sunset? If so, you may be unknowinglyusing your own form of “ecotherapy”, an approach designed to improve emotional health by reconnecting peoplewith nature and the environment.
The field of ecopsychology, which first became popular in the United States in the 1990s, argues that humans are anintegral part of the world of nature and should not be separated from it. Their emotional health may suffer if they arecut off from nature by urbanisation or other aspects of modern life. In addition, the guilt people feel from the humandestruction of nature may cause emotional distress.
From this movement grew ecotherapy, offering strategies to strengthen people’s relationship with nature. These rangefrom the sophisticated to the simple. For example, learning to survive alone in the wilderness can build confidence,but even a simple walk outdoors can also be effective. Some therapies involve animals: swimming with dolphins,interacting with your pet or watching a tropical fish tank are all beneficial. Even looking at a picture of an outdoorscene can help, too.
One study in the United Kingdom was designed to measure the mood, self-esteem and enjoyment of 20 peopleafter taking two different walks, one inside a shopping centre and the other outside in a park. The results showedthat self-esteem increased significantly after the outdoor walk, while tension and depression decreased. In contrast,many people felt worse after the walk in the shopping centre. One UK mental-health charity is now proposing thatecotherapy be made more readily available for mental-health patients, as it already is in Holland and Norway.
So if you’re feeling a bit low, you may not need anti-depressants or costly therapy. First, try riding your bikeor walking on the beach. These activities will certainly be good for your physical health, and may boost yourmorale, too. Decide if the following sentences are true (T) Rewrite the sentences without changing their or false (F). Find evidence in the text to justify original meaning. your answers.
1. Swimming with dolphins is beneficial. T 1. Ecotherapy can benefit people even if they
It’s beneficial to swim with dolphins. “… you may be unknowingly using
2. Learning to survive alone in the wilderness can
your own form of ‘ecotherapy’ …” F 2. Ecotherapy strategies always involve
Confidence can be built by learning to survive alone in the wilderness. “Even looking at a picture of an outdoor scene can help, too.” Find words or expressions in the text that F 3. A UK study found that a walk through
a shopping centre decreased depression. “In contrast, many people felt worse cut off from after the walk in the shopping centre.” Complete the sentences using the information given in the text.
1. In Norway and Holland ecotherapy is made Write a composition of about 100-150 words eadily available to mental-health in your notebook. Choose ONE option. patients
2. The writer believes that instead of anti-depr or costly therapy, one should try a bike . ride or a walk on the beach
2. An opinion essay: What’s your ideal outdoor
Accept all logical and grammatically correct answers. Exam Practice 8 Exam Practice
More and more people today understand that carbon emissions are a problem for the atmosphere. Many people aregenuinely concerned about the environment and would like to reduce the amount of energy consumption they’reresponsible for, but certain lifestyle changes, such as giving up flying and driving, are simply impractical.
In order to help these people to help the environment, some new companies now enable businesses and individualsto “buy” the right to emit carbon. Essentially, consumers pay these companies to counter-balance their carbon use byinvesting in projects that benefit the environment. These may include promoting renewable energy sources such assolar power, or planting trees in poor countries to help absorb carbon from the air.
Although the basic principle seems logical, it has been criticised by some environmentalists on philosophicalgrounds. Each household in the United States is said to be responsible for approximately six tons of harmful gasemissions every year, and some experts believe these people should make the effort to reduce their energyconsumption. However, there’s practical criticism as well. With little regulation, it’s hard to know if the companiesare actually doing as they promised. Another concern focuses on the possibility that the same offset may be sold tomore than one customer.
The idea of cleaning up “carbon footprints” (i.e., the impact of human activity on the environment in terms of carbonuse) is growing in popularity in the Western world. One indication is the number of products and events that nowadvertise themselves as “carbon-neutral” or “clean” because managers have paid to negate the impact of the gasesemitted. Another indication is the plan for a US airport to allow interested passengers to purchase offsets for theenvironmental damage caused by their flight.
It’s still too early to judge if this trend is mainly a way to ease guilt caused by over-using energy, or a realistic way
of helping the planet. However, one thing is certain – we should all remember to do as much as we can to clean upour carbon footprints. Choose the correct answer. Answer the question.
1. Most people in the developed world . .
Why has the carbon offset industry been criticised?
It has been criticised because some feel that people need to reduce their energy consumption and not just pay something extra for it. / it’s hard to know if companies are
usually find it easy to make changes such as
doing what they promised and that the same offset may be sold to more than one customer. Rewrite the sentences without changing their
generally want to try to reduce the amount
environmentalists on philosophical grounds.
Some environmentalists have criticised the idea on philosophical grounds.
2. Is this a realistic way of helping the planet?
Is this a realistic way to help the planet? Find words in the text that mean: Write a composition of about 100-150 words impractical in your notebook. Choose ONE option.
1. An opinion essay: Should energy consumers be
required by law to offset their carbon emission?Give reasons for your answer. purchase
2. A formal letter: Write a letter to your local
council in which you complain aboutenvironmental problems in your town and whatyou would like to do about them. Accept all logical and grammatically correct answers. 9 Exam Practice
When Jane Hambleton bought a car for her son Steven, 19, she set two rules; no alcohol in the car, and keep the carlocked. But soon she placed this advertisement in the local newspaper: “Totally uncool parents who obviously don’tlove teenage son, selling his car. Only driven for three weeks before snoopy mom who needs to get a life foundbooze under front seat. $3,700/offer. Call meanest mom on the planet.”
While teenagers may agree that Jane was “mean”, many adults approved of this public demonstration of “toughlove”, a type of discipline where harsh measures are used to help people modify dangerous or unacceptablebehaviour. The term was first used by Phyllis and David York in 1979 to describe their uncompromising attitudetowards their daughter when her bad behaviour culminated in an arrest for armed robbery. They didn’t allow her toreturn home until she had completed a drug rehabilitation programme and found a job.
From this incident, the Tough Love movement was born. For just a nominal fee, parents are able to tap intoa support system and attend meetings, where they are encouraged to “take a stand” (set a long-term goal) and enforcea “bottom line” (behaviour that will eventually lead to the realisation of the stand). Even parents who don’t formallyjoin this network often use some of its techniques, as do several programmes dealing with drug abuse and criminalactivity. But the method can be abused. Some summer camps in the US claiming to use tough love to disciplinetroubled teenagers have seen tragic results. Because they often dismiss signs of physical illness as weakness ormanipulation, there have been disturbing incidents of neglect.
So, was Jane Hambleton right to sell her son’s car? She insists that she was, and that in placing her advertisement,she has instantly raised awareness of two important issues – the drink-driving problems among teens, and theimportance of proper parental discipline. Choose the correct answer. Complete the sentences using the information given in the text.
1. Today, the use of tough love can be found in programmes dealing with drug abuse and criminal activity. occurred in some US
disciplined her son by showing tough love
summer camps using the tough-love method.
2. Some camps in the United States . . a.
Find words in the text that mean:
won’t use tough love if teens are physically ill
3. Jane Hambleton’s advertisement . .
established her right to sell her son’s car
hasn’t raised awareness of parental discipline
Write a composition of about 100-150 words Answer the question. in your notebook. Choose ONE option.
How did the Tough Love movement get its name?
The Tough Love movement got its name from
advantages and disadvantages of tough-love
Phyllis and David York in 1979 to describe their uncompromising attitude towards their daughter’s behaviour.
Hambleton was justified in placing theadvertisement? Explain why or why not. Accept all logical and grammatically correct answers.
IRCHET International Research Centre of Healthy and Ecological Technology“The electromagnetic radiations emanating for radar, television, communications systems,microwave ovens, industrial heat-treatment systems, medical diathermy units, and many othersources permeate the modern environment, both civilian and military.”“Unless adequate monitoring and control based on a fundamental understan
In this study, we examine the distribution of revenues for a comprehensive sample of newdrugs introduced into the United States during the period, 1988 to 1992. In earlier research, weexamined the returns to R&D for the U.S. new drug introductions during the 1970s and early "The Distribution of Sales from Pharmaceutical Innovation" 1980s.[1,2] One of the key findings was that the