The Vinyl Institute, A Division of The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.
65 Madison Avenue, Morristown, New Jersey 07960, (201) 898-6699 Fax (201) 898-6633
FIRE & POLYVINYL CHLORIDE
Description of materials used in cone calorimeter (and some other) tests:
(All samples are at 6 mm thickness, except as indicated.)
excellent fire performance properties.
In particular, pure PVC will not burn
A: NON VINYLS
Cycolac’ CTB acrylonitrile butadiene styrene terpolymer (Borg Warner) (# 29)
Cycolac’ KJT acrylonitrile butadiene styrene terpolymer fire retarded with bromine
Polymeric system containing acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and some poly(vinyl chloride)
Polyacetal: polyformaldehyde (Delrin™, Commercial Plastics) (# 24)
Copolymer of ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM) and styrene acrylonitrile
Kydex™: fire retarded acrylic panelling, blue, (samples were 4 sheets at 1.5 mm thickness
siding or vertical blinds, cause less fire
hazard than similar samples of wood.
Polycarbonate sheeting (Lexan™ 141-111, General Electric) (# 5)
Commercial polycarbonate sheeting (Commercial Plastics) (# 16)
Nylon 6,6 compound (Zytel™ 103 HSL, Du Pont) (# 28)
Polybutylene terephthalate sheet (Celanex™ 2000-2 polyester, Hoechst Celanese) (# 32)
Polyethylene (Marlex™ HXM 50100) (# 34)
Polyethylene terephthalate soft drink bottle compound (# 33)
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (25 mm thick, lined with cardboard, standard RHR sample) (# 26)
plasticizer and other additives used.
Blend of polyphenylene oxide and polystyrene (Noryl™ N190, General Electric) (# 18)
Blend of polyphenylene oxide and polystyrene containing 30% fiberglass (Noryl™ GFN-3-70,
Polystyrene, Huntsman™ 333 (Huntsman) (# 30)
tionally treated with fire retardants.
Fire retarded polystyrene, Huntsman™ 351 (Huntsman) (# 23)
Polytetrafluoroethylene sheet (samples were two sheets at 3 mm thickness each, Du Pont)
Polyurethane flexible foam, non fire retarded (25 mm thick, Jo-Ann Fabrics) (# 25)
Thermoplastic polyurethane containing fire retardants (Estane™, BFGoodrich) (# 27)
to measure the fire properties of the rel-
Black non-halogen flame retardant, irradiation crosslinkable, polyethylene copolymer
cable jacket compound (Unigard™ DEQD-1388, Union Carbide) (# 11)
scale and full-scale tests, and interpretthem in terms of overall fire hazard.
ASSESSING FIRE HAZARD
Poly(vinyl chloride) rigid weatherable extrusion compound with minimal additives
Fire hazard, or the potential for a fire to
Poly(vinyl chloride) rigid experimental sheet extrusion compound with smoke suppressant
Poly(vinyl chloride) general purpose rigid custom injection moulding compound with impact
Chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) sheet compound (BFGoodrich) (# 7)
amount of heat released on burning,rate of heat release, flame spread,
Standard flexible poly(vinyl chloride) compound (non-commercial; similar to a wire and cable
as well as the specific conditions of the
compound) used for various sets of testing (including Cone Calorimeter RHR ASTM round
robin; it contains PVC resin 100 phr; diisodecyl phthalate 65 phr; tribasic lead sulphate 5 phr; calcium carbonate 40 phr; stearic acid 0.25 phr (# 21)
Flexible wire and cable poly(vinyl chloride) compound (non fire retarded) (BFGoodrich) (# 14)
PVC WC SM: Flexible wire and cable poly(vinyl chloride) compound (containing minimal amounts of fire
Flexible wire and cable poly(vinyl chloride) compound (containing fire retardants)
Flexible vinyl thermoplastic elastomer alloy wire and cable jacket experimental compound,
vinyl, including eight flexible, or semi-
example of the first of several families of VTE alloys (# 6)
rigid, vinyls). Table 1 lists the materi-
Flexible vinyl thermoplastic elastomer alloy wire and cable jacket experimental compound, example of the second of several families of VTE alloys (# 3)
Flexible vinyl thermoplastic elastomer alloy wire and cable jacket experimental compound, example of the third of several families of VTE alloys (# 2)
Semi flexible vinyl thermoplastic elastomer alloy wire and cable jacket experimental compound, example of a family of VTE alloys containing CPVC (# 4)
als, a sequence number (by which theyare identified in Figures and Tables)and a short description. Figures are pre-sented in such a way that the better fireresponses tend to be at the top.
If a material does not ignite, there is no
first line of defense in a fire. In fact,
ASTM D1929 (Setchkin Test)
however, all organic materials do ignite,
but the higher the temperature a materi-al has to reach before it ignites, the
safer it is. Thus, it is possible to deter-
test). Figure 1 presents the self-ignition
common materials.3-5 The PVC materi-al tested has a flash ignition tempera-
ing ignitability is to determine a time to
needed to ignite the material. This canbe done using a modern standard test,
ASTM E1354 (cone calorimeter). Fireperformance improves as either one of
2 (page 4) shows some results of thistest, the minimum ignition fluxes
Temperature (Degrees C)
Ease of Extinction
Once ignited, the easier a material is
to extinguish, the lower the fire hazard
associated with it. One of the most
Ignition Minimum Fluxes*
ASTM E1354 (Cone Calorimeter)
D2863), an ease of extinction test. Itgives the limiting concentration of oxy-
reflect greater ease of extinction). This
ments. PVC materials tend to performvery well in both tests: UL 94 V-0 and
However, both of these fire tests havebeen criticized because they are not
spread tests for full-scale testing, but a
(Figure 4, on a logarithmic scale)3-4show PVC as one of the materials with
Min Ignition Flux (kW/m^2)
TTI: 600 s
*materials listed are identified in Table 1
Limited Oxygen Index
ASTM D2843 Test
ASTM E162 Test
Log (Flame Spread Index)
The key question in a fire is: “How big
Peak RHR of Materials (OSU)
is the fire?” The one fire property that
Incident Flux of 20 kW/m^2
answers that question is the rate of heat
gives off enough heat to ignite them.
air surrounding anything not on fire.
available for potential victims of a fire
to kill. Therefore, fire fatalities occur
when the rate of heat release of the fire
Peak RHR (kW/m^2)
is sufficiently large to cause many (oreven most) products in the room of fire origin to burn.
Peak RHR of Materials (Cone)
Weighted Average of 20, 40, 70 kW/m^2
Peak RHR (kW/m^2)
the most important of which areignitability, a ratio of ignitability andheat release known as the fire perfor-mance index (for which performanceimprovements correspond to higher values), mass loss rate and smokerelease. Moreover, results from thisinstrument correlate with those fromfull-scale fires.15-17
In order to get an overall view of thefire performance of materials, it isimportant to test materials under a vari-ety of conditions. Therefore, test results
often are carried out at a variety of inci-dent heat fluxes. Figures 6-9 (pages 6-8)
Ignitability of Materials (Cone)
Weighted Average of 20, 40, 70 kW/m^2
materials. The peak rates of heat release
rials is based on the increasing value of
the peak rate of heat release at an inci-
lower rates of heat release than vinyl.
those involving testing of upholsteredfurniture (ASTM E1537, CA TB 133),
Log (Time To Ignition) (s)
mattresses (ASTM E1590, CA TB 129),electrical cables (UL 1685), packagingsystems (UL 2019), plastic displaystands (UL 1975), or wall lining prod-ucts (UBC 42-2, ISO 9705). In everycase, whenever applicable, results indi-cate that products based on properly formulated PVC materials are invariablytop-rated performers.
Decreased visibility is a serious concern
Log [Ave Fire Performance Index]
Weighted Average of 20, 40, 70 kW/m^2
decreases visibility is by the release of
obscuration and rate of heat release.
Log FPI (s m^2/kW)
(ASTM E662). This test has now beenexhaustively proven to be seriously
flawed; the principal deficiencies identi-fied are shown in Table 3.18-22 The most
Smoke Release From Materials (Cone)
Weighted Average of 20, 40, 70 kW/m^2
Log (SmkFct) (MW/m^2)
smoke chamber is the effect of sampleorientation. Some materials melt or drip
Peak Rate of Heat Release in the Cone Calorimeter
portions escape the effect of the radiant
ucts are exposed horizontally, the entire
ence in test results shown in Table 4).18
would be formed in a realistic scenario.
Deficiencies in the NBS smoke chamber
Effect of Orientation on Smoke Density
Results do not correlate with full-scale fires
Vertical orientation leads to melt and drip
Maximum incident radiant flux is 25 kW/m2
Rational units of m^2/kg are not available
NBS Smoke Chamber Results
Maximum Smoke Density: ASTM E662
heat release) shows how smoke obscu-ration produced by the smoke chamber
rate of heat release in the full-scale test
at least to some extent, with the toxicity
lower). The figure clearly puts into per-
toxicities of all organic materials (with
for this is that the most important toxic
fatalities associated with CO, whichwas published in 1992.26 This study,
Dm (F or NF)
examining almost 5,000 fatalities,found that the toxicity of fire atmos-pheres is determined almost exclusively
by CO. Moreover, there is no minimumlethal CO threshold level (which was
Results of Corner Burn Room Fire Test
previously thought to be 50% carboxy-hemoglobin, COHb), since any blood
duce lethality, depending on the victim.
NIST has since developed a new, anddefinitive, smoke toxicity test, leadingto the following main conclusions: 27-30
■ Most fatalities occur in fires thatbecome very big; that is, go toflashover.
■ The concentrations of CO in the fireatmospheres of those flashover fires arevirtually unaffected by the materialsburning. The corresponding yields ofCO are approximately 0.2 grams pergram mass of fuel burned, which trans-lates to a toxic potency of 25 mg/L, fora 30 minute exposure.
■ Conventional small-scale fire testsalways predict concentrations of COthat are much lower than the full-scaleones. Therefore, when assessing realfires using small-scale test data, real-scale CO concentrations must be fac-tored in by a calculated correction toobtain relevance to real flashover fires.
■ The new NIST radiant small-scaletoxicity test has been well validated
against toxicity in full-scale fires.
However, such a validation cannot be
Toxic Potency (Lethal Dose) of Substances and of Smoke
(LD50 in mg/kg)
mg/L (i.e. its toxicity is less than that
Table 6 shows the results of testing anumber of products (including severalvinyls) with this test.31 Corrected toxicpotency values (Corr LC ) are deter-
mined taking into account the full-scaleconcentrations of carbon monoxide. It
is very clear that all vinyl materials arewell within the normal range of toxicity,
NIST Radiant Toxicity Test Results
the table, to highlight the fact that their
HEALTH EFFECTS OF
materials, both natural and synthetic.1, 3
the susceptibility of different animals to
lethality due to irritants (like HCl) 32-33
similar to those of humans — namely,rats and baboons.29, 32-33, 40-41 The data are
Acrylic F: Acrylic fabric; Composite: Naval composite board; Dg FIR: Fire retarded Douglas fir board; FLX PU
FM: Flexible polyurethane foam; MELFM: Melamine polyurethane foam; Nylon: Nylon wire coating com-
pound; Nylon Rug (Tr): Treated with PTFE coating; Nylon Rug (Un): Untreated; PR FULL: Predicted CarbonMonoxide Post Flashover Toxicity; PVC CB: PVC cable insulation; PVC INS: traditional PVC wire insulation
compound; PVC JK: traditional PVC wire jacketing compound; PVC Lw HCl: PVC jacket compound + abundant
acid retention filler; PVC Md HCl: PVC jacket compound + moderate acid retention filler; PVC PRF: Rigid PVC
profile; Rg PU FM: Rigid polyurethane foam; Vinyl F: Vinyl fabric; Vinyl FLR: Vinyl flooring over plywood
hazard: a very pungent odor, detectableat a level of less than 1 ppm,42 whileCO is odorless and narcotic. Therefore,HCl will signal people in a fire atmos-phere to escape, while CO will narco-tize them.
Table 7 also shows the highest concen-tration of these gases found in two
Lethal Exposure Doses for Common Gases
corresponding 30 minute lethal value.
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE DECAY
(a) Odor detection level; Reference 42.
(b) 30 min exposure; within exposure deaths; Reference 41.
(c) 30 min exposure; within exposure deaths; Reference 29; N-gas model.
fires is that the HCl “decays.” In other
(d) 30 min exposure; within + post-exposure deaths; Reference 40.
(e) 30 min exposure; within + post-exposure deaths; References 29; N-gas model.
(f) 30-60 min exposure; post-exposure deaths; Reference 32.
(g) 5-15 min exposures; with no deaths; Reference 32.
(h) 30 min exposure; post-exposure deaths; References 29, 40; N-gas model.
(i) 5 min exposure; post-exposure deaths; Reference 33.
of studies was done to investigate the “lifetime” of HCl in a fire atmos-phere.45-49 These studies showed that the
peak HCl concentration found in a fireis much lower than would be predicted
HCI Concentration Measured in a PMMA 200
from the chlorine content of the burningmaterial. Moreover, this peak concen-
HCI OBS-HCI CALC (ppm/1000)
pears completely from the air. Figure12 shows the HCl concentration-time
pattern for several experiments wherePVC wire insulation (containing the
chlorine equivalent of 8,700 ppm of HCl) was electrically decomposed in the presence of various sorptive sur-
faces, in a small chamber. In one exper-iment, all internal surfaces of the cham-
Miniplenum – 70% RH
(gypsum board and ceiling tile), simu-lating a plenum. The peak HCl concen-
tration found was only 10% of the theo-retical concentration.
A computer fire model also was devel-oped to assess HCl transport and decay
as seen in these experiments.50 Themodel, which is capable of predictingHCl decay whether it originates from
source,51 has now been incorporatedinto the NIST fire hazard assessmentmodel (HAZARD I).52
large-scale experiments.45, 53-55 The first
range as that of many other materials.
long air conditioning duct.53 Here, 3,000
PVC PERFORMANCE IN
burns, it releases HCl, which is irritat-
gases in that its concentration in the gas
the ignition source itself (a wood crib).
that the vinyl panels generated so littleheat or smoke is that most of the vinyl
and NIST , involved PVC cablesinstalled in concealed spaces in hotels.
The outcome was that cables with thefire performance of PVC were unlikelyto add significantly to the fire risk asso-ciated with the other materials present.
16. V. Babrauskas, “Upholstered Furniture Room
1. C.F. Cullis and M.M. Hirschler, “The
Furniture Calorimeter Data, and Flashover
Combustion of Organic Polymers,” Oxford
Predictions,” J. Fire Sciences, 2, 5-19 (1984).
17. V. Babrauskas and J.F. Krasny, “Prediction of
2. M.M. Hirschler, “Recent developments in flame-
Upholstered Chair Heat Release Rates from
retardant mechanisms,” in “Developments in
Bench-Scale Measurements,” in “Fire Safety.
Polymer Stabilisation,” Vol. 5 (G. Scott, editor),
Chapter 5, pp. 107-52, Applied Science Publ.,
(T.Z. Harmathy, editor), p. 268, American
Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia
3. C.J. Hilado, “Flammability Handbook of
Plastics,” 3rd Ed., Technomic Publishing,
18. L.H. Breden and M. Meisters, “The effect of
sample orientation in the smoke density cham-
4. A.H. Landrock, “Handbook of Plastics
ber,” J. Fire and Flammability, 7, 234 (1976).
Flammability and Combustion Toxicology,”
19. V. Babrauskas, “Applications of Predictive
Smoke Measurements,” J. Fire and Flammability,
5. M.M. Hirschler, “Fire hazard and toxic potency
of the smoke from burning materials,” J. Fire
20. J.G. Quintiere, “Smoke measurements: an assess-
ment of correlations between laboratory and full-
6. M.M. Hirschler, “Heat release from plastic mate-
scale experiments,” Fire and Materials, 6, 145
rials,” Chapter 12 a, in “Heat Release in Fires,”
Elsevier, London, UK, Eds. V. Babrauskas and
21. V. Babrauskas, “Use of the Cone Calorimeter
for Smoke Prediction Measurements,” in SPE
7. E.D. Weil, M.M. Hirschler, N.G. Patel, M.M.
RETEC conference on “PVC: THE ISSUES,”
Said and S. Shakir, “Oxygen Index: correlations
to other fire tests,” Fire and Materials, 16,
22. M.M. Hirschler, “How to measure smoke obscu-
ration in a manner relevant to fire hazard assess-
8. D.W. Belles, F.L. Fisher and R.B. Williamson,
ment: Use of heat release calorimetry test equip-
“How well does the ASTM E84 predict fire per-
ment,” J. Fire Sciences, 9, 183-222 (1991).
formance of textile wallcoverings”? Fire J.,
23. G.F. Smith and E.D. Dickens, “New low smoke
thermoplastics to meet new needs in the market-
9. V. Babrauskas, “Effective Measurement
place,” in Proceedings of the 8th International
Techniques for Heat, Smoke and Toxic Fire
Conference on Fire Society (C.J. Hilado, editor),
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Product Safety, p. 227-42, San Francisco (1983).
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October 24-25, London, UK, # 4 (1988).
A. Stolte and D. Malek, “Further Development
10. V. Babrauskas and S.J. Grayson, “Heat Release
of a Test Method for the Assessment of the Acute
in Fires,” Elsevier, London, UK (1992).
Inhalation Toxicity of Combustion Products,”National Bureau of Standards NBSIR 82-2532
11. V. Babrauskas and R.D. Peacock, “Heat Release
Rate: The Single Most Important Variable in FireHazard,” Fire Safety J., 18, 255-72 (1992).
25. L.J. Casarett, in “Toxicology — The Basic
Science of Poisons,” (L. Casarett and J. Doull,
12. E.E. Smith, “Heat Release Rate of Building
editors), Macmillan, New York, p. 24 (1975).
Materials,” in “Ignition, Heat Release andNoncombustibility of Materials, ASTM STP
26. S.M. Debanne, M.M. Hirschler and G. L. Nelson,
502,” (A.F. Robertson, editor), p.119, American
“The importance of carbon monoxide in the toxi-
Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia
city of fire atmospheres,” in “Fire Hazard and
Fire Risk Assessment,” ASTM STP 1150, Amer.
Soc. Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, Ed.
13. M.M. Hirschler, “The measurement of smoke
in rate of heat release equipment in a mannerrelated to fire hazard,” Fire Safety J., 17,
27. V. Babrauskas, R.H. Harris, R.G. Gann, B.C.
Levin, B.T. Lee, R.D. Peacock, M. Paabo, W.
Twilley, M.F. Yoklavich and H.M. and Clark,
14. V. Babrauskas, “Development of the Cone
“Fire Hazard Comparison of Fire-Retarded and
Calorimeter. A Bench-Scale Heat Release Rate
Non-Fire-Retarded Products,” NBS Special Publ.
Apparatus Based on Oxygen Consumption,”
749, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg,
National Bureau of Standards, NBSIR 82-2611
28. G.W. Mulholland, in W.M. Pitts, “Executive
15. V. Babrauskas, “Bench-Scale Methods for
Prediction of Full-Scale Fire Behavior of
Predictive Capability for CO Formation in Fires,”
Furnishings and Wall Linings,” Society of Fire
NISTIR 89-4093, National Institute of Standards
Protection Engineers, Boston, Technology Report
and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, p. 25 (1989).
29. V. Babrauskas, R.H. Harris, E. Braun, B.C.
40. V. Babrauskas, B.C. Levin and R.G. Gann, “A
51. F.M. Galloway and M.M. Hirschler, “Decay of
Levin, M. Paabo and R.G. Gann, “The Role of
new approach to fire toxicity data for hazard
hydrogen chloride in the presence of various flu-
Bench-Scale Data in Assessing Real-Scale Fire
evaluation,” Fire Journal, 81(2), 22 (1987).
ids and surfaces,” in Proc. 18th. Int. Conf. on
Toxicity,” NIST Tech. Note # 1284, National Inst.
Fire Safety, Product Safety Corp., San Francisco
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Standards Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (1991).
(CA, U.S.A.), Ed. C.J. Hilado, Jan. 11-15 (1993).
“Modeling of Toxicological Effects of Fire
30. V. Babrauskas, B.C. Levin, R.G. Gann, M.
Gases: VI. Further Studies on the Toxicity of
52. F.M. Galloway and M.M. Hirschler, “The hydro-
Paabo, R.H. Harris, R.D. Peacock and S. Yusa,
Smoke Containing Hydrogen Chloride,” J. Fire
gen chloride generation and deposition capability
“Toxic Potency Measurement for Fire Hazard
in Hazard I,” Natl Inst. Standards and Technology
Analysis,” NIST Special Publication # 827,
Hazard I and FPETOOL Users’ Conference,
42. J.E. Amoore and E. Hautala, “Odor as an aid to
chemical safety: odor threshold compared with
threshold limit values and volatilities for 214
53. F.M. Galloway and M.M. Hirschler, “Experiments
31. M.M. Hirschler and A.F. Grand, “Smoke toxicity
industrial chemicals in air and water dilution,”
for hydrogen chloride transport and decay in a
J. Applied Toxicology, 3, 272 (1983).
simulated heating, ventilating and air conditioning
“Technical and Marketing Issues Impacting the
system and comparison of the results with predic-
43. W.A. Burgess, R.D. Treitman and A. Gold,
Fire Safety of Building and Construction and
tions from a theoretical model,” J. Fire Sciences,
“Air Contaminants in Structural Firefighting,”
Home Furnishings Applications,” Proc. FRCA
N.F.P.C.A. Project 7X008, Harvard School
Tech. Mtg, Orlando, Fl, Mar. 29-Apr. 1, 1992,
54. F.M. Galloway and M.M. Hirschler, “Transport
FRCA, Lancaster, PA, p. 149-65 (1992).
and decay of hydrogen chloride: Use of a model
44. A.F. Grand, H.L. Kaplan and G.H. Lee,
32. G.E. Hartzell, S.C. Packham, A.F. Grand and
to predict hydrogen chloride concentrations in
“Investigation of Combustion Atmospheres in
W.G. Switzer, “Modeling of Toxicological
fires involving a room-corridor-room arrange-
Real Fires,” U.S.F.A. Project 80027, Southwest
Effects of Fire Gases: III. Quantification of Post-
ment”, Fire Safety J., 16, 33-52 (1990).
Exposure Lethality of Rats from Exposure to HCl
55. F.M. Galloway and M.M. Hirschler, “The use of
Atmospheres,” J. Fire Sciences, 3, 195 (1985).
45. J.J. Beitel, C.A. Bertelo, W.F. Carroll, R.A.
a model for hydrogen chloride transport and decay
Gardner, A.F. Grand, M.M. Hirschler and G.F.
33. H.L. Kaplan, A.F. Grand, W.G. Switzer, D.S.
to predict airborne hydrogen chloride concentra-
Smith, “Hydrogen chloride transport and decay in
tions in a full scale room-corridor scenario,”
a large apparatus. I. Decomposition of poly(vinyl
chloride) wire insulation in a plenum by current
Performance of the Baboon and the Rat,”
overload,” J. Fire Sciences, 4, 15-41 (1986).
56. I.A. Benjamin, “Toxic hazard analysis: electrical
non-metallic tubing,” J. Fire Sciences, 5, 25
46. C.A. Bertelo, W.F. Carroll, M.M. Hirschler
34. H.L. Kaplan, and G.E. Hartzell, “Modeling
and G.F. Smith, “Thermal decomposition of
of Toxicological Effects of Fire Gases: I.
poly(vinyl chloride). Kinetics of generation
57. M.M. Hirschler, “First order evaluation of fire
Incapacitating effects of narcotic fire gases,”
and decay of hydrogen chloride in large and
hazard in a room due to the burning of poly(vinyl
small systems and the effect of humidity,” in
chloride) products in a plenum: estimation of
35. K.I. Darmer, E.R. Kinkead and L.C. DiPasquale,
“Fire Safety Science, Proceedings of the 1st
the time required to establish an untenable atmos-
“Acute Toxicity in Rats and Mice Exposed
International Symposium” (C.E. Grant and P.J.
phere,” J. Fire Sciences 6, 100-120 (1988).
to Hydrogen Chloride Gas and Aerosols,”
58. F.M. Galloway and M.M. Hirschler, “Fire hazard
J. American Industrial Hygienists Association,
in a room due to a fire starting in a plenum: Effect
47. J.J. Beitel, C.A. Bertelo, W.F. Carroll, A.F.
of poly(vinyl chloride) wire coating,” in “Fire and
36. H.L. Kaplan, R.K. Hinderer and A. Anzueto,
Polymers: Hazards Identification and Prevention”
“Extrapolation of Mice Lethality Data to
“Hydrogen chloride transport and decay in a
(Ed. G.L. Nelson), ACS Symposium Series 425,
Humans,” J. Fire Sciences, 5, 149 (1987).
large apparatus: II. Variables affecting hydrogen
Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC, Chapter 28,
chloride decay,” J. Fire Sciences, 5, 105-45
37. H.L. Kaplan, A. Anzueto, W.G. Switzer and R.K.
Hinderer, “Effects of Hydrogen Chloride on
59. R.W. Bukowski, F.B. Clarke, J.R. Hall and S.W.
Respiratory Response and Pulmonary Function
48. F.M. Galloway, M.M. Hirschler and G.F. Smith,
Stiefel, Fire Risk Assessment Method: Case Study
of the Baboon,” J. Toxicol. Environ. Hlth 23,
“Model for the generation of hydrogen chloride
3, Concealed Combustibles in Hotels, National
from the combustion of poly(vinyl chloride)
Fire Protection Research Foundation, NFPA,
under conditions of forcefully minimized decay,”
38. H.L. Kaplan, W.G. Switzer, M.M. Hirschler and
A.W. Coaker, “Evaluation of smoke toxic poten-cy test methods: comparison of the NBS cup fur-
49. F.M. Galloway, M.M. Hirschler and G.F. Smith,
nace, the radiant furnace and the UPITT tests,”
“Surface parameters from small scale experi-
ments used for measuring HCl transport anddecay in fire atmospheres,” Fire and Materials,
39. R.K. Hinderer and M.M. Hirschler, “The toxicity
of hydrogen chloride and of the smoke generatedby poly(vinyl chloride), including effects on vari-
50. F.M. Galloway and M.M. Hirschler, “Model for
This report has been prepared by the Technical
ous animal species, and the implications for fire
the mass transfer and decay of hydrogen chloride
Committee of the Vinyl Institute as a service to
safety,” in “Characterization and Toxicity of
in a fire scenario,” in “Mathematical Modeling of
its members and their customers and is based on
Smoke,” ASTM STP 1082, Amer. Soc. Testing
Fires. ASTM STP 983,” (J.R. Mehaffey, editor),
literature and information believed to be accurate.
and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, Ed. H.J.
American Society for Testing and Materials,
No warranty or guaranty, expressed or implied,
is made for the accuracy or completeness of the information provided herein and neither the VinylInstitute nor its members or contributors assume any responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in this document.
BREEDING MANAGEMENT OF THE BITCH-- Autumn P. Davidson The canine estrous cycle consists of 4 phases: proestrus, estrus, diestrus and anestrus. Proestrus and estrus are commonly called “heat” or “season”. During proestrus, the start of the estrous cycle, the bitch attracts male dogs, but is still not receptive to breeding. She may become more playful and passive as proestrus continues. A
Prevention and Control of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Athletic Teams Staphylococcus aureus (“staph”) is a common type of bacteria that is found on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. It can cause infections in wounds or other places in the body. Penicillin is a drug that was once commonly used to treat staph infections. In the last few decades, many