Sheep parasites.pdf

Minimise direct contact with other flocks by paying contact. The mite can survive off the sheep attention to fence maintenance and double for up to 17 days and as a result infection by fencing if possible. Quarantine and treat for scab mites from the environment is possible. Scab in all incoming sheep - for at least three weeks mites spend their entire life cycle on the sheep Mites can survive in the environment, so mites in livestock lorries and on shearing equipment can § Sheep will scratch, rub, nibble and kick at spread scab. Reputable contractors will take the affected areas, and large portions of the appropriate measures to prevent this.
§ Skin becomes hardened and often develops LAMENESS
raw patches that are open to infection from Is caused by entry of bacteria into damaged § Loss of condition due to secondary bacterial tissue caused by long, wet stemmy grass, thistles infection and a lack of rest through constant and thorns. The interdigital space of the foot becomes inflamed. Prevent scald by topping and grazing to keep pastures short and control weeds.
Contact your Veterinary Surgeon for treatment Treat with foot-bath in a 10% solution of zinc advice if you suspect that your sheep are affected.
sulphate. This is most effective when feet are clean when entering foot-bath. Topical treatment Treat the entire flock in one operation. If scab with antibiotic can also be effective for individual is identified on common grazing, inform the animals but use requires veterinary advice.
simultaneous approach is essential (this is Infection generally starts in the interdigital space and then spreads, invading the horn and under- 1997), move treated animals to ‘clean’ housing running the sole. It is infectious and particularly or pasture for at least three weeks directly common in warm, damp conditions. The foot rot organism can only survive on pasture for 7 to 10 days under such conditions, so rotational grazing effective and broad spectrum, no resistance and isolation of infected animals can help control has been reported, single dip, will protect the disease. Foot bathing in 10% zinc sulphate is recommended but for severe cases antibiotic Synthetic pyrethroid (SP) plunge dips are therapy will be necessary. Infected sheep should effective and broad spectrum, resistance has be kept separate from the rest of the flock. Turn been recorded, may require two treatments 14 clean sheep on to clean pasture. Some cases of chronic foot rot may not respond to repeated infestation, needs return to clean pasture.
treatment with antibiotics. These sheep shouldbe culled to avoid spreading the disease to the Endectocides (injectable products) control rest of the flock. Consult vet on best treatment.
both internal and external parasites. Injectionsites and dose rates vary with the product so it CODD – Contagious Ovine Digital Dermatitis is crucial to follow the manufacturer’s Distinct from normal foot rot in that infection instructions carefully. Some provide poor generally starts on the coronary band. There can be rapid shedding of the whole horn case leavinga raw digital stump. Infection can spread rapidly.
Consult the new Groundwater Protection Code on the use anddisposal of sheep dip compounds (PB5803)to help you avoid A quick and accurate diagnosis should be made polluting groundwater and to comply with the law (free copies by a vet and antibiotic should be started available by telephoning 0870 1226 236 or INFECTIOUS DISEASE
Account for about 60 % of lamb losses. Many of INTERNAL PARASITES
these losses could be reduced by better flock Internal sheep parasites are a significant security, an effective disease control programme limiting factor to efficient livestock production.
Ideally lambs should graze clean pastures each Enzootic abortion usually arrives on the farm
year but this can be difficult to achieve. Gut worms, the main cause of lost productivity, are § Infection is spread from ewe to ewe, or from best controlled by an integrated system of ewe to lamb by infected afterbirth, lambs or grazing management and strategic dosing.
Ewes that are normally ‘resistant to worms’ can § Aborting ewes should be isolated from the contaminate pastures around lambing time, rest of the flock and all afterbirths and when their immunity declines. Dosing ewes at, contaminated bedding disposed of carefully or as near to lambing as possible, without § Flock replacements can be kept separate causing undue stress, will significantly reduce from the rest of the flock until lambing is Anthelmintic resistance is a particular
§ Vaccination at least 4 weeks before tupping is concern to the sheep industry. In the UK it is a very effective way of reducing incidences mainly confined to the benzimidazole group § Lambs can be infected at birth and will abort (the ‘white drenches’). An annual rotation of at their first lambing, but vaccination can anthelmintics between the three classes of reduce the level of abortion in ewes lambing drugs is essential in sheep systems. Always read instructions, and do not underdose.
Toxoplasma abortion is picked up from feed
(straw, hay, silage or concentrates)
Group names
mummified foetuses, abortions, stillbirths and § Only a problem if the infection is picked up at § Not usually passed from sheep to sheep and vigilant control of the farm cat population is § Vaccination is a very effective means of control but ‘in feed’ medication is also PREPARATIONS FOR LAMBING
Ewes should be fed according to body condition Clostridial Diseases and Pasteurella
and litter size to ensure strong healthy lambs and a rich supply of colostrum and milk.
Lambing pens should be kept clean to avoid pasteurella if it is a problem on the farm.
should receive adequate colostrum in the first 2 injections 4-6 weeks apart in the autumn to hours after birth. As a guide, a 4 kg lamb ensure full immunity and all sheep should needs about 800 ml of colostrum in the first 24 hours. All navels should be treated with iodine § The annual booster for in lamb ewes should but castrating and tailing should be left for 24 be given at 4 to 6 weeks before lambing to hours until lambs are well fed and mothered up.
Watery Mouth is caused by ingestion of E.coli
ensure a rich supply of antibodies in thecolostrum to give passive immunity to at or around birth. Lack of colostrum is a major factor as it helps combat bacterial infections.
Good hygiene is an essential and effectivemeans of prevention. Vaccination of ewes pre- MORE INFORMATION
lambing is an option if the problem occurs Deborah Courtney 01970 823 028 oremail [email protected] [email protected] The Livestock Knowledge Transfer management team are grateful to ADAS for the information used to produce this fact sheet.


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