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Although there is archaeological evidence of a human presence on Taiwan as early as fifteen thousand years ago, the
island’s three hundred and forty thousand or so aborigines are believed to be descended from groups that arrived in
different waves beginning about six thousand years ago. Large-scale Han Chinese i 1 didn’t begin until the
mid-seventeenth century, and until that time, these mainly hunter-gatherer tribes were the undisputed masters of the land.
There are differing views on the origins of Taiwan’s indigenous population, but most of the linguistic, cultural, and
archaeological data points to the “southern connection.” In other words, Taiwan’s aborigines belong to the same e 2 c
group as the Austronesian peoples that are scattered over most of Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. One theory
even claims that Taiwan was actually the original homeland of all Austronesian groups.
After taking control of the island, the Han Chinese authorities cl 3 ed the aborigines into “plains” tribes and
“mountain” tribes, with several subdivisions each. Many of the early Chinese immigrants were young s 4 men,
which led to widespread intermarriage between them and “plains” aboriginal girls. It was only a matter of 5 before
the “plains” peoples blended in with the Han Chinese, and nowadays only a few remnants of their languages survive in
In contrast with the “plains” peoples, the culture and languages of the “mountain” peoples have remained relatively
in 6 t. This is because these peoples have traditionally inhabited less accessible areas of Taiwan, such as the Central
Mountain Range, remote corners of the east and southeast, and Orchid Island.
The largest of Taiwan’s surviving aboriginal groups is the Ami, with an e 7 ted current population of about
one hundred and twenty-five thousand. They are mainly found in the valleys and coastal plains of eastern Taiwan,
between the ports of Hualien and Taitung, and are also divided into five subgroups according to location, customs, and
As in many other parts of the world, indigenous culture in Taiwan has been slowly disappearing, with many of its
traditions already ex 8 t. Fewer and fewer young people are learning the languages of their forefathers nowadays,
and they have been leaving their traditional homelands in ever greater numbers to find jobs and new lives in the island’s
Nevertheless, in keeping with a worldwide trend for native populations to assert themselves, many of the aborigines
of Taiwan have taken advantage of the island’s recent democratization process to make their v 9 heard and
demand their rights. Like native peoples in other countries, they are working hard to preserve their identity and
二、文意選填：14 % (請以字母代號作答)
The first step to fight against infection is to cultivate a well-armed immune system. The immune system requires
certain nutrients—particularly antioxidant nutrients, like vitamin C, contained in fresh fruit and vegetables. Two new
studies have added weight to the theory that megadoses of vitamin C can help fight infection. Dr. Harri Hemila at
Helsinki University has shown that large doses of vitamin C significantly reduce the 1 of the symptoms and the
length of a cold. A study by British biochemists has shown that one gram of vitamin C can reduce your chances of
getting a cold. The other antioxidants, vitamins A and E, selenium and zinc, are also powerful allies of the immune
system. In one recent trial, people who took these antioxidants recovered from colds twice as quickly as those who did
Exercise is also important to the state of our immune systems. Exercise is beneficial in several ways. First, it
boosts 2 , getting more oxygen to the tissues to destroy toxic waste. Second, it helps drain the lymph system which
transports waste out of the body. Third, it disperses stress hormones which hinder the production of white blood cells
and interferon. Fourth, by producing endorphins, exercise also puts us in a better mood—and being happy is important
because psychological stress 3 the immune system.
If all defense-building methods fail, your early-warning system will issue some or all of the following signs:
sensation in the nose or throat upon waking; feeling tired before getting up; a 4 head; a hint of a headache; heavy
muscles; feeling shivery or shaky. You should act quickly at this time. Attack the germs the instant you suspect you
may have an infection—the amount of invading virus in your body 5 after around three days and is then hard to
defeat. Fight back by taking up to three grams of vitamin C immediately, then a gram every four hours. Take also
other antioxidants: vitamins A and E, selenium and zinc. Take Echinacea, a herb with strong anti-viral and
anti-bacterial 6 . Drink plenty of water to keep the respiratory tract lubricated. Eat lightly—mainly fruit and
vegetables. Avoid dairy and fatty foods—they are mucus-forming and slow the lymph system—and caffeinated drinks
and alcohol, which hinder vitamin 7 . Finally, avoid stress and sleep as much as possible. And then you’ll get
Ever since time began, people have been seeking a cure for old age and death. Explorers traveled far and wide for it;
kings and queens offered vast fortunes for it; and rumor has it that Walt Disney even had himself 1 for it. In today’s
world of scientific breakthroughs and medical miracles the desire for longevity has reached fever pitch. People with the
money to do so have been spending big on hormone replacement therapy, antioxidant pills and a whole range of other
treatments in the hope of victory in the battle 2 the body clock.
In the past hundred years alone, the average life expectancy of people born in the developed world has almost
doubled. This increase has been largely due to the discovery of vaccinations and cures for such 3 fatal diseases as
tuberculosis –the number one cause of death in the 1900s— and polio. But scientists now believe the potential curative
medical treatment is almost completely exhausted. They say greater attention must be given to preventive measures. This
4 in emphasis from cure to prevention has taken much of the responsibility for our health back from doctors and
placed it squarely in the hands of the individual. Aside from not smoking or drinking to excess, people can do a number
of very simple things to stack the odds in their favor. Both heart disease and stroke, 5 , can be avoided by eating
monounsaturated fats. Also niacin and low-dose aspirin are useful in 6 these conditions. Even the risk of cancer
can be halved by the regular consumption of dietary supplements like aspirin and lycopene, an antioxidant found in
Several hundred million years ago, plants similar to modern ferns covered vast stretches of the land. Some
were as large as trees, with giant fronds bunched at the top of trunks as straight as pillars. Others were the size of bushes
and formed thickets of undergrowth. Still others lived in the shade of giant club mosses and horsetails along the edges of
swampy lagoons where giant amphibians swarm.
A great number of these plants were true ferns, reproducing themselves without fruits or seeds. Others had only the
appearance of ferns. Their leaves had organs of sexual reproduction and produced seeds. Although their “flowers” did
not have corollas, these false ferns ushered in an era of flowering plants. Traces of these flora of the earliest times have
been preserved in the form of fossils. Such traces are most commonly found in shale and sandstone rocks wedged
Today only tropical forests bear living proof of the ancient greatness of ferns. The species that grow there are no
longer those of the Carboniferous period, but their variety and vast numbers, and the great size of some, remind us of the
time when ferns ruled the plant kingdom.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
2. Which of the following is NOT
mentioned as a characteristic of the plants described in the passage?
(A) They once spread over large areas of land.
(C) They coexisted with amphibians, mosses, and horsetails.
(D) They clung to tree trunks and bushes for support.
3. The author states that fossils of early plant life are usually found in rocks between deposits of
Standing on the rim of the Grand Canyon, gazing across this giant wound in the Earth’s surface, a visitor might
assume that the canyon had been caused by some ancient convulsion. In fact, the events that produced the canyon, far
from being sudden and cataclysmic, simply add up to the slow and orderly process of erosion.
Many millions of years ago the Colorado Plateau in the Grand Canyon area contained 10,000 more feet of rock than
it does today and was relatively level. The additional material consisted of some 14 layered formations of rock. In the
Grand Canyon region these layers were largely worn away over the course of millions of years.
Approximately 65 million years ago the plateau’s flat surface in the Grand Canyon area bulged upward from
internal pressure; geologists refer to this bulging action as upwarding; it was followed by a general elevation of the whole
Colorado Plateau, a process that is still going on. As the plateau gradually rose, shallow rivers that meandered across it
began to run more swiftly and cut more definite courses. One of these rivers, located east of the upward, was the
ancestor of the Colorado. Another river system, called the Hualapai, flowing west of the upward, extended itself
eastward by cutting back into the upward; it eventually connected with the ancient Colorado and captured its waters.
The new river then began to carve out the 277-mile-long trench that eventually became the Grand Canyon. Geologists
reckon that this initial cutting action began no earlier than 10 million years ago.
Since then, the canyon forming has been cumulative. To the corrosive force of the river itself have been added
other factors. Heat and cold, rain and snow, along with the varying resistance of the rocks, increase the opportunities
for erosion. The canyon walls crumble; the river acquires a cutting tool, tons of debris; rainfall running off the high
plateau creates feeder streams that carve side canyons. Pushing slowly backward into the plateau, the side canyons
expose new rocks, and the pattern of erosion continues.
4. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Patterns of erosion in different mountain ranges.
(C) The increasing pollution of the Colorado River.
(D) The sudden appearance of the Grand Canyon.
5. In line 1, the author refers to the Grand Canyon as a “wound” to indicate that _____.
(A) it was caused by some ancient convulsion
(B) its presence is an embarrassment to the state of Colorado
(C) it looks like an injury on the Earth’s surface
(D) it has caused many visitors to injure themselves
6. According to the passage, the first phenomenon to contribute to the formation of the Grand Canyon was _____.
(B) the sudden collapse of rock formations in the Colorado Plateau
(C) the Earth’s internal pressure lifting the Colorado Plateau region
(D) a succession of floods from the Hualapai River and what is now the Colorado River
7. What was the geographic position of the upward approximately 65 million years ago?
(A) To the east of what is now the Colorado River.
(C) At the source of the Hualapai River and what is now the Colorado River.
(D) Between the Hualapai River and what is now the Colorado River.
8. Which of the following conclusions about the Grand Canyon can be drawn from the passage?
(A) Its contours are constantly changing.
(B) It contains approximately 14 million tons of rock.
(C) Its eruptions have increased in recent years.
(D) It is being eroded by toxic waste and pollutants.
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