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Lithium batteries

RECHARGEABLE COIN TYPE LITHIUM BATTERIES
Vanadium pentoxide lithium rechargeable batteries (VL series) This coin type lithium rechargeable battery has a totally •• Flat high voltage of about 3 V
new composition, employing vanadium pentoxide A single battery can provide the voltage equivalent cathode, lithium alloy anode, and non-aqueous solvents to two or even three nickel cadmium batteries in the electrolyte solution. With an energy density about (approx. 1.2 V) and capacitors. Benefits include: twice that of button type nickel cadmium batteries, this battery is especially suited for applications such as •• Several months of continuous backup
memory backup power supply in electronic devices. VL3032 (nominal capacity l00mAh) is capable of continuous backup for 10,000 hours at a memory backup load of 10µA (when discharged to 2.5 V). •• Small self-discharge allows use without rechar-
Memory backup power supplies for OA equipment ging even after long storage.
(personal computers, facsimiles, etc.), AV equip- Unlike nickel cadmium batteries which lose consid- ment (VTRs), and communications equipment (por- erable capacity in 6 months due to self-discharge, the vanadium lithium secondary battery's self- Hybrid systems with solar batteries (solar remote discharge is very small, i.e., annual rate of approxi- •• Stable to continuous overcharging and overdis-
charging.
Vanadium lithium batteries exhibit stable character-
istics in continuous overcharging and overdischar-
ging to 0V, important in memory backup considera-
tions.
Electrical characteristics 20°C
Continuous
Dimensions (Max.)
Nominal *1
Model No.
capacity
voltage (V)
Standard
Diameter
* 1 Nominal capacity shown above is based on standard drain and cut off voltage down to 2.5 V at 20°C About 1,000 times at 10% discharge depth to nominal capacity Constant-voltage charging (Refer to recommended charging circuit) Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 49
January 2000
RECHARGEABLE COIN TYPE LITHIUM BATTERIES
Load characteristics (VL2020)
Temperature characteristics (VL2020)

Storage characteristics (without charge) (VL2020)

Charge/discharge characteristics vs. discharge depth
(VL2020)
Discharge depth (%) as a function of nominal capacity Withstand voltage characteristics (Overcharge
Overdischarge characteristics (VL2020)
characteristics) (VL2020)
Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 50
January 2000
BATTERY SELECTOR CHART
Current drain as a function of duration

Temp: 20˚C Initial cut off volatage: 2.5V Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 51
January 2000
RECOMMENDED CHARGING CIRCUITS
Basic conditions: Fixed-voltage charging Charging circuits are important. Be sure to refer to "Precautions in handling "(page 61).
VL 1216,VL1220 approx. 0.5 mA or below VL 2020 (Note: current can be increased when voltage is below 3 V.) (Use caution in setting the charge voltage.) Reference: Examples of 5-V charging circuits
Standard circuits
For D2, select a diode of small inverse current (IR = 1µA or below / 5 V) D1, D2 = MA716 (Diode type code) D3 = MA704, MA700 Simple economical circuits
Type VL3032 VL2330 VL2320 VL2020 VL1220 VL1216 VL621 For D2, select a diode of small inverse current (IR = 1µA or below /5 V)
Charging curve: circuits
c and d
UL recognition conditions
When a protective component is shorted or opened,
maximum charge current is regulated to the following Call Panasonic for answers to specific questions about Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 52
January 2000
OTHER CHARGING CIRCUITS
4 For minimizing current leakage due to resistance, etc., In such a case as charging by another battery
For the details, refer to the constant voltage element specifications 5 Zener control
6 LED control
* Select a diode having an inverse current as small as possible. (IR=1µA or below / 5 V) 7 Transistor control
8 Parallel circuit
(Note) Be sure to consult with us regarding the charge circuit to be used. Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 53
January 2000
MANGANESE TITANIUM LITHIUM RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES (MT SERIES)
•• Charging/discharging over a long period is pos-
sible.
More than 500 charging and discharging cycles to
Manganese titanium lithium rechargeable batteries are a discharge low limit voltage of 1 V (i.e. charge/ compact rechargeable batteries developed for rechar- discharge of discharge depth 100%) is possible. geable watches, and backup power supplies for pagers •• Excellent voltage and overdischarge
and timers. The batteries employ lithium-manganese withstanding characteristics
complex oxide as cathode material, and lithium-titanium The batteries can withstand a continuous voltage oxide the (AB204) as the anode material. The batteries application of 2.6V at a temperature as high as 60° provide a capacity that is more than 10 times that of and furthermore can withstand continuous over capacitors of the same size. Panasonic was the first •• Small self discharge
(Note 1: Press announcement on March 29,1995) The self discharge in 20 days at 60°C (equivalent to 1 year at normal temperature) is not more than approximately 10%. •• Large capacity in a miniature size comparable to
chip components
When fully charged, MT621 and MT920 are oper-able for about 1000 and 2500 hours respectively at a •• Main power supply in compact products such as •• Flat operating voltage
•• Memory backup power supplies for pagers and The operating voltage is comparatively flat in the •• Superior charge characteristics
Charging efficiency is nearly 100% with small char-ging loss. The charge voltage can be set flexibly in the range between 1.6 V and 2.6 V. Electrical characteristics 20°C
Continuous
Dimensions (Max.)
Nominal *1
Model No.
capacity
voltage (V)
Standard
Diameter
*1 Nominal capacity shown above is based on standard drain and cut off voltage down to 1.0 V at 20°C Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 54
January 2000
MANGANESE TITANIUM LITHIUM RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES - CONTINUED
Charge/discharge characteristics (MT920)
Charge/discharge characteristics (MT1620)
Constant voltage charging characteristics (Capacity
recovery as a function of charge voltage: MT621)
Cycle life characteristics (MT621)
Withstand voltage characteristics (MT621)
Overdischarge characteristics (MT621)
Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 55
January 2000
MANGANESE TITANIUM LITHIUM RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES-CONTINUED
Discharge temperature characteristics (MT621)
Storage characteristics (MT621)
After continuous application of 2.6Vat 60˚C for 100 days After recharging the dischargedbattery of above.
Temp: 20˚C Initial cut off voltage: 1.0V Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 56
January 2000
MANGANESE LITHIUM RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES (ML SERIES)
•• Large capacity for hour-after-hour back-up
The ML621 has a nominal capacity of 3 mAh, and These super-compact lithium secondary batteries feature when the load is 5µA, it provides back-up for 600 a new configuration in which a manganese compound oxide is used for the positive electrode, a lith- •• Excellent withstand voltage characteristics
ium/aluminum alloy for the negative electrode and a These batteries can withstand the application of a special nonaqueous solvent for the electrolyte. They can continuous 3.2V voltage at a high temperature of be charged at voltage levels of 3V or so, they have a large capacity and excellent overcharge and over- •• Outstanding overcharge and overdischarge with-
discharge withstanding characteristics. Their space- standing characteristics.
saving design enables them to be incorporated quite Even when these batteries have been left standing for a long time with no charge at all, their perfor- mance can be restored by recharging them. •• Charging at voltage levels even under 3V
In order to support the current trend in ICs toward Power source for backing up memory data in mobile lower voltages, these batteries can be charged at a 3 ± telephones, personal handyphone systems, memory 0.2 voltage level, and this makes it easier to set the cards, pagers and other small-sized communications charging circuits for the circuits which employ 3V devices as well as in data terminals and office Electrical characteristics 20°C
Continuous
Dimensions (Max.)
Nominal *1
Model No.
capacity
voltage (V)
Standard
Diameter
* 1 Nominal capacity shown above is based on standard drain and cut off voltage down to 2.0 V at 20°C About 1,000 times at 10% discharge depth to nominal capacity Constant-voltage charging (refer to recommended charging circuit) Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 57
January 2000
MANGANESE LITHIUM RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES – CONTINUED
Discharge characteristics
Discharge load characteristics (ML621S)
Discharge temperature characteristics (ML621S)
Discharge: 200k (=12µA), cut-off at 3.1V Charge/discharge characteristics vs. discharge depth
(ML621S)
Discharge depth (%) as a function of nominal capacity Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 58
January 2000
MANGANESE LITHIUM RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES – CONTINUED
Storage characteristics (ML621S)
Withstand voltage characteristics (Overcharge
characteristics) (ML621S)
Overdischarge withstanding characteristics
Relationship between charging voltage and charge
(ML621S)
acceptance
Relationship between current consumption and
Constant-voltage charging characteristics (ML621S)
charge retention time
Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 59
January 2000
RECOMMENDED CHARGING CIRCUIT
The choice of the charging circuit is extremely critical if Basic conditions: Constant-voltage charging full rein is to be given to the battery characteristics. Charging voltage: 2.8 to 3.2V (Standard voltage: 3.1V) Make every effort to ensure that the proper charging Current: (0.3mA for ML616. ML621 with 2.5V battery circuit is used; otherwise, trouble may result. (Use caution in setting the charge voltage.) When charging using another battery
REG D R 3.2V MA700 1.8KΩ 3.1V MA700 1.5KΩ Standard circuit
•• Select a diode with a low reverse current for D2. Simple circuit which can be configured at low cost
* VF of D will be different from the value given above if a current in excess of 100µA flows to the load during operation. Compensation must be provided by the resistors in such cases. UL recognition for the ML621 and ML616 was received When a protective component is shorted or opened, maximum charge current is regulated to the following In filling application for UL recognition, a maximum value of 300mA was given as the condition restricting the current when a short-circuit or open-circuit situation Call Panasonic for answers to specific questions about UL.
Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 60
January 2000
PRECAUTIONS
Precautions for handling rechargeable coin type lithium
* For details, refer to "Use caution in allowing batteries
batteries to contact each other" on page 97. Please observe the following precautions to keep the Precautions in equipment design
Common precautions for vanadium pentoxide, Precautions for storage
manganese titanium lithium and manganese Avoid storing batteries at unusually high temperatures. Store batteries in a low-humidity location with little temperature variation. If batteries are stored in humid Do not mount batteries in a high-temperature or heat- areas, moisture may condense on their surface, exerting generating location; protect batteries from foreign an adverse influence on their electrical characteristics. Store batteries away from direct sunlight. If lead wires and connection terminals like tab Precautions in handling
terminals are needed for the batteries, Panasonic can supply external terminals (connectors, etc.) on For measuring the battery voltage, use an instrument •• Please be sure to consult Panasonic when two or The operating temperature range of batteries is from more batteries are to be used in series or in parallel; -20°C to 60°C. When batteries are used or stored for a long time at 60°C or higher temperatures, their •• Take into account during design that the internal performance may deteriorate. Consult Panasonic if resistance of batteries increases as they approach the batteries are to be used at temperatures above 60°C. Do not use batteries with their (+) and (-) electrodes reversed; this incorrect use deteriorates battery performance and may cause corrosion of the (-) terminal (anode cap) during charging, leading to •• When constant-voltage charging, observe the specified range of charge voltage. If the charge •• Absolutely avoid mixed use of the batteries and other voltage is above the upper limit, the internal primary or rechargeable batteries. Also avoid mixed resistance of batteries may increase, causing battery use of batteries with different sizes even if they belong performance to deteriorate; if charge voltage is below to the same series, and avoid mixed use of new and the lower limit, battery capacity cannot recover com- used batteries. Performance differences among pletely. If the charge voltage exceeds approximately different batteries may damage equipment. 4 V, the (+) terminal (case) may become corroded, •• When mounting terminal-attached batteries onto a printed circuit board, etc., by dipping in a solder bath, * For details, refer to "Influence of charge voltage of limit the dipping time to a maximum of 5 seconds: vanadium pentoxide lithium rechargeable batteries" dipping for a longer time may cause an adverse on page 99. When using fixed-current charging, call influence on the electrical characteristics such as voltage and capacity. Use extreme caution not to drop batteries into the solder bath during dipping; if dropped into the solder tank, batteries may burst due to abrupt heating. Do not apply solder directly to batteries. Also, For the charging circuit of manganese titanium rechargeable batteries, please be sure to consult us. * For details, refer to "Guide to correct soldering of Give careful thought to the contact design as weak lithium batteries with terminals" on page 94. electrical contact may cause defective operation of •• Do not insert batteries into antistatic materials or wrap the battery-mounted PC board in conductive sheets. Manganese Lithium rechargeable batteries These materials can cause a voltage drop or drain the •• Restrictions on the charging voltage range apply in exactly the same way as for Vanadium pentoxide * For details, refer to "Use caution with antistatic •• For the charging circuit of manganese lithium re- •• Do not place two or more batteries together into a chargeable batteries, please be sure to consult us.
bag or container; external shorting between batteries may cause a voltage drop or drain the batteries. Lithium Batteries Handbook, Page 61
January 2000

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Development of a minimal set of prescribing quality indicators for diabetes management on a general practice level

pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety (2011)Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/pds.2248Development of a minimal set of prescribing quality indicators fordiabetes management on a general practice levelLiana Martirosyan1*, Flora M. Haaijer-Ruskamp1, Jozé Braspenning2 and Petra Denig11 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center Gronin

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