Microsoft word - aidsvideos_glossary_06_tamil.doc
General notes for translators: (DO NOT TRANSLATE)
• The goal is to create a translation that is technically accurate, sounds natural to
a native speaker when spoken aloud, and is readily understandable by native speakers in the target language and culture.
• These scripts are intended to be read by a native speaker into a camera to
produce a video. If your language has a difference between spoken and written
forms, create a script that documents the words the presenter should say when they speak the message into the camera (the "for speaking" forms), even if that is not how you would write if the document were intended to be read silently.
• Use your judgment in translating abbreviations (such as AIDS). Some languages
like French wil have their own abbreviation (SIDA). Other languages may use the
English abbreviation "AIDS" as-is. Other languages may not use abbreviations at all, and it may be best to use the full term ("Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ") as rendered in the target language or a shortened form that is in common usage.
• Please try to make your translations consistent with how doctors and public
health authorities in your target language / culture are using terms when they talk about HIV/AIDS. Please check with public health sites for your target language or medical doctors or nurses who are native speakers where necessary to clarify correct translations.
• Some scripts like the "Crystal Methamphetamine and HIV" include English slang
terms. In those cases, please identify any slang names for the drug used in the target language. If no such terms exist or can be identified, that phrase will be skipped in translation.
EXPLANATION, DEFINITION, OR NOTES FOR REFERENCE BY
English abbreviation for "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome." Please decide how this should best be expressed in the target language.
Simpler term meaning "antiretroviral medication"
âî¤ó¢ àò¤ó¤ ðó¤«ê£î¬ù
Antiretroviral drug, If there is a standard term for this that is widely or Antiretroviral
understood in your target language, countries, and
culture, use that term. If this concept is too technical for
your target country / language / culture, consider using
a simpler term like “AIDS medication.”
English abbreviation for "Antiretroviral medication."
English abbreviation for "azidothymidine," also known as"Zidovudine." This is a one ARV that is widely used today as part of "triple therapy" combinations. See
English abbreviation for "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention," a U.S. government agency.
Caesarian section Surgical delivery of a child. If the term "Caesarian
section" is unfamiliar in your language/culture, use
"surgical delivery" or whatever term is commonly used in
your language/culture to describe this procedure.
A sub-group of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are also known as "white blood cells" or "leukocytes." The number of these cells decreases as HIV infection progresses. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD4_cell
ê¤ñ¢ðù¢ú¤ (Ýð¢ð¤ó¤è¢èè¢ °óé¢°)
Testing for HIV in which a person's name is written down
Square sheet of latex used as a barrier method of protection during oral sex on a woman or analingus. The term is not widely known, even among native speakers
of English, and the prevention technique is not widely used in practice. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental_dam
English abbreviation for "Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent
Assay," also known as "Enzyme ImmunoAssay" or "EIA." This is the type of test used for an "initial" HIV test. "Western Blot" is used for the second, "confirmatory" HIV test. See
Getting an incorrect "negative" result on a test when the actual result should be "positive." E.g. HIV antibody tests
will show a "false negative" result of HIV- for the first few weeks after a person has been infected with HIV
because the body hasn't yet manufactured the
antibodies that will later cause a correct HIV+ test result if the test is repeated. See
Getting an incorrect "positive" result on a test when the actual result should be "negative." E.g. a person who recently had influenza might get a "false positive" result on an ELISA HIV test. See
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_negative#Type_I_error ªð£ò¢ò£ù ð£ê¤ì¢®õ¢
Pricking the skin of the finger to draw a small amount of
English abbreviation for "Food and Drug Administration," which is the U.S. government agency that approves drugs for use in humans.
U.S. government agency that approves drugs for use in
English abbreviation for "highly active antiretroviral therapy." Refers to using three ARVs together to suppress HIV more effectively.
Refers to using three ARVs together to suppress HIV more highly active
effectively. HAART is the English abbreviation for this.
English abbreviation for " Human Immunodeficiency Virus."
Term describing the continuum from being HIV+ to
Person who denies the overwhelming scientific evidence that HIV is the cause of AIDS.
Strain of HIV responsible for most cases of HIV/AIDS
Strain of HIV found primarily in Western Africa.
«ï£ò¢ âî¤ó¢ð¢¹ Ü¬ñð¢¹
Medical doctor who is a specialist in infectious diseases.
áê¤ Íôñ¢ ªê½î¢îð¢ð´ñ¢ ñ¼ï¢¶
áê¤ Íôñ¢ ªê½î¢îð¢ð´ñ¢ ñ¼ï¢î¤ù¢ ðòù¢ð£´
Process by which a woman gives birth to a child.
Balls of immune-system tissue in the neck, abdoment, and groin that may swell up during infection.
A general feeling of being tired, sick, or unwell that people often experience during the early phase of a viral infection such as influenza or primary HIV infection.
English abbreviation for "mother-to-child transmission."
ARV used to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
French institution similar to United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
ªð£¶üù àìô¢ïô è¤÷¤ù¤è¢
ãø¢èè¢Ã®ò õ£ò¢õö¤ ð£½ø¾
A practice that increases a person's risk of contrcting HIV, e.g. having unprotected sex, sharing needles when injecting drugs, etc.
Sexual practices like using condoms and dental dams
that reduce the risk of HIV transmission.
English abbreviation for "simian immunodeficiency virus." This is the virus in chimpanzees and monkeys that jumped to humans and mutated to become HIV.
English abbreviation for "sexually transmitted disease."
Strain (as in “strain HIV has many mutant strains. A “strain of HIV” is the of HIV”)
particular mutant of strain that an individual has. If the term “strain” is too technical, consider an alternative like
United Nations agency in charge of HIV/AIDS prevention and relief
Birth of a child through the vagina. (As opposed to
surgical delivery known as "Caesarian section.")
A test (known as PCR for "Polymerase Chain Reaction")
that determines how much HIV is in a person's blood.
ªõú¢ìó¢ù¢ ð¤÷£ì¢ ðó¤«ê£î¬ù
Period after infection with HIV where a person has not
yet generated antibodies to HIV, so they wil get a "false negative" result on ELISA even though they are infected with HIV, have it in their blood, and can infect others.
English abbreviation for "World Health Organization."
Martina Böhmer Altenpflegerin für Geriatrische RehabilitationReferentin und Beraterin in der AltenarbeitGründerin , Mitarbeiterin bei Paula e.V., Martina Böhmer, Erfahrungen sexualisierter Gewalt in der Lebensgeschichte alter Frauen©, 2012, www.martinaboehmer.de, Zahlen zu sexualisierter Gewalt • Laut Kriminalstatistik werden in Deutschland jedes Jahr rund 20.000 Fäl e von sexue
References Anera, R. G., J. R. Jimenez, et al. (2006). "Prevalence of refractive errors in school-age children in Burkina Faso." Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 50 (5): 483-484. Angle, J. and D. A. Wissmann (1980). "Myopia and Corrective Lenses." Social Science & Medicine Part a-Medical Sociology 14 (6A): 473- 479. Applegate, R. (1991). Monochromatic wavefront