MEDICAL RESEARCH SUMMARY FOR
SANTA CLARA COUNTY DOMESTIC VIOLENCE COUNCIL
This summary includes selected medical research articles relating to abuse indexed by the National Library of Medicine
March 2010. To obtain a copy of the abstracts, go to pubmed.gov, and place the Pubmed ID numbers (PMID) in the
search box, separated by commas. Child Abuse
Appel JM. Mixed motives, mixed outcomes when accused parents won't agree to withdraw care.
J Med Ethics. 2009 Oct;35(10):635-7. PMID: 19793945
Ethical implications are discussed in the situation of decision to terminate a child’s life support or not, including prevention of a murder charge, when one or both parents are accused of causing the child’s life-threatening injuries.
Pierce MC, Smith S, Kaczor K. Bruising in infants: those with a bruise may be abused.
Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009 Dec;25(12):845-7. PMID: 20016354
Article describes three cases of non-cruising infants presenting to the ED for various medical problems who also had (sometimes subtle) bruising present, and who then presented shortly afterwards with fatal or near-fatal abusive trauma.
Bechtel K. Sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infections in children and adolescents.
Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010 Feb;22(1):94-9. PMID: 19952927
Review article of different sexually transmitted diseases, their implications when found in children/adolescents, modes of transmission, and post exposure preventative treatment.
Jones LM, Atoro KE, Walsh WA, Cross TP, Shadoin AL, Magnuson S. Nonoffending caregiver and youth experiences with child sexual abuse investigations.
J Interpers Violence. 2010 Feb;25(2):291-314. PMID:19465571
In interviews with 203 caregivers and 65 youth aged 8 and older regarding child sexual abuse investigations, two areas of least satisfaction with investigators were: lack of commitment and skill in pursuing case, and lack of communication. Better than expected were the investigators’ emotional support and interviewing skills.
Adult Manifestations of Child Abuse
Lev-Wiesel R, Daphna-Tekoah S, Hallak M. Childhood sexual abuse as a predictor of birth-related posttraumatic stress and postpartum posttraumatic stress.
Child Abuse Negl. 2009 Dec;33(12):877-87. PMID: 19900704.
In a study of over 800 pregnant women, women with a history of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to experience PTSD symptoms of arousal, intrusion, and dissociation both during pregnancy and postpartum, and more likely to develop PTSD from delivery, than women with a history of other trauma or no trauma.
Cutajar MC, Mullen PE, Ogloff JR, Thomas SD, Wells DL, Spataro J. Suicide and fatal drug overdose in child sexual abuse victims: a historical cohort study.
Med J Aust. 2010 Feb 15;192(4):184-7. PMID: 20170453
In an Australian group of 2759 victims of childhood sexual abuse followed for up to 44 years, compared to the general population, risk of suicide was 18 times higher, and accidental fatal drug overdose 49 times higher.
Koenen KC, Widom CS. A prospective study of sex differences in the lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among abused and
neglected children grown up.
J Trauma Stress. 2009 Dec;22(6):566-74. PMID: 19937646
Of 674 individuals with documented child abuse/neglect assessed for PTSD in adulthood, women were more than twice as likely to develop PTSD as men, with the greatest gender difference among sexual abuse victims.
Pae CU, Masand PS, Marks DM, Krulewicz S, Han C, Peindl K, Mannelli P, Patkar AA. History of early abuse as a predictor of treatment response in patients with fibromyalgia: a post-hoc analysis of a
12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled release.
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10(4 Pt 2):435-41. PMID: 19382010.
In a treatment study of 112 patients with fibromyalgia (disorder with diffuse body pain), 52.7% had experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse. Abuse history did not correlate with baseline symptom status or response to medical treatment, but those with a history of childhood sexual abuse had a significantly lower improvement in status of well-being after medical treatment.
Midei AJ, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT. Childhood abuse is associated with adiposity in midlife women: possible pathways through trait anger and
Psychosom Med. 2010 Feb;72(2):215-23. Epub 2010 Jan 11. PMID: 20064904
In a prospective national 8 year study of 311 midlife women, a history of childhood physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with higher BMI (body mass index) and WC (waist circumference). Associated factors discussed include higher anger scores and lower SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin, which is linked to increased body fat).
Domestic Violence – Physical Health
Mayson BE, Teichman JM. The relationship between sexual abuse and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.
Curr Urol Rep. 2009 Nov;10(6):441-7. PMID: 19863855.
Women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome have a higher incidence of abuse than the general population, and experience greater pain intensity; article reviews known correlations and physiology.
Sanchez-Lorente S, Blasco-Ros C, Coe CL, Martinez M. Recovery of immune control over herpes simplex virus type 1 in female victims of intimate partner violence.
Psychosom Med. 2010 Jan;72(1):97-106. PMID:19933506
In a longitudinal study of 60 Spanish women seeking help at a women’s center, who either experienced psychological and physical IPV abuse, psychological abuse alone, or no abuse, initially the physical abuse group had the lowest levels of immune resistance to herpes virus type 1 (usual cause of oral herpes “cold sores”). Three years later, immune function had returned to normal levels in this group, and the largest factor associated with this improvement was the discontinuation of physical abuse.
Domestic Violence – Mental Health
Pigeon WR, May PE, Perlis ML, Ward EA, Lu N, Talbot NL. The effect of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression on insomnia symptoms in a cohort of women with sexual
J Trauma Stress. 2009 Dec;22(6):634-8. PMID: 19885874
In a controlled study of 106 women with childhood sexual abuse, adult major depression and insomnia, interpersonal psychotherapy improved depression but not the insomnia.
Sullivan TP, Cavanaugh CE, Buckner JD, Edmondson D. Testing posttraumatic stress as a mediator of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner violence and
substance problems among women
J Trauma Stress. 2009 Dec;22(6):575-84. PMID: 19960546
In a research study of 212 women currently experiencing IPV, frequency of the abuse was significantly related to greater posttraumatic stress symptoms, and those symptoms were significantly related to substance abuse (48% drugs, 59% alcohol).
Shoultz J, Magnussen L, Manzano H, Arias C, Spencer C. Listening to Filipina women: perceptions, responses and needs regarding intimate partner violence.
Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2010 Jan;31(1):54-61. PMID: 19951163
Research study from Hawaii describes Filipina women’s perceptions, responses and needs regarding IPV. “They believed that it was their responsibility to keep the family intact regardless of IPV, and did not realize that IPV has a significant negative impact on the mental health and well-being of both women and their children.”
Roberts AL, Gilman SE, Breslau J, Breslau N, Koenen KC. Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and
treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States.
Psychol Med. 2010 Mar 29:1-13. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:20346193
In a national survey with structured interviews of almost 36,000 people, lifetime prevalence of PTSD was: Black 8.7%, White 7.4%, Hispanic 7.0%, Asian 4.0% (all groups higher in women than men). Percentage of each group seeking treatment for PTSD was: Black 35.3%, White 53.3%, Hispanic 42%, and Asian 32.7%.
Elder/Dependent Adult Abuse
Macneil G, Kosberg JI, Durkin DW, Dooley WK, Decoster J, Williamson GM. Caregiver mental health and potentially harmful caregiving behavior: the central role of caregiver anger.
Gerontologist. 2010 Feb;50(1):76-86. PMID: 19574537
In interviews with 417 co-residing elder caregivers, anger was the most important moderator of potentially harmful behavior, and anger was was significantly associated with both depression and resentment.
Walker DD, Neighbors C, Mbilinyi LF, O'Rourke A, Zegree J, Roffman RA, Edleson JL. Evaluating the Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on the Perpetrator: The Perceived Consequences of Domestic
J Interpers Violence. 2010 Feb 5. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20139346
This article describes a self-report instrument designed to assess the consequences of IPV as perceived by the perpetrator. Responses can be used in assessment of readiness for and motivators to change.
Ireland TO, Smith CA. Living in partner-violent families: developmental links to antisocial behavior and relationship violence.
J Youth Adolesc. 2009 Mar;38(3):323-39. PMID: 19636748.
In an ongoing longitudinal study of 1,000 urban youth, exposure to severe parental violence was significantly related to early adulthood violent crime and IPV perpetration.
Hare AL, Miga EM, Allen JP. Intergenerational transmission of aggression in romantic relationships: the moderating role of attachment
J Fam Psychol. 2009 Dec;23(6):808-18. PMID: 20001139
75 male and female adolescents age 13 and their families were interviewed, and interviewed again 5 years later. Paternal (but not maternal) aggression was significantly associated with not only adolescent dating aggression, but choosing aggressive partners. This effect was less in teens who had positive attachment measures at home (felt secure with one or both parents).
Zinzow HM, Ruggiero KJ, Hanson RF, Smith DW, Saunders BE, Kilpatrick DG. Witnessed community and parental violence in relation to substance use and delinquency in a national sample of
J Trauma Stress. 2009 Dec;22(6):525-33. PMID: 19885872
In a national telephone survey of over 3600 adolescents, witnessing community and parental violence was associated with delinquency. Witnessing community violence was associated with substance use. “These findings highlight the importance of targeting witnessed violence in prevention and intervention efforts.”
Jones AS, Heckert DA, Gondolf ED, Zhang Q, Ip EH. Complex behavioral patterns and trajectories of domestic violence offenders.
Violence Vict. 2010;25(1):3-17. PMID: 20229690
550 DV offenders and their partners were followed for 15 months, to analyze behavioral patterns and thereby seek to improve risk assessment and risk management.
Krueger RB, Kaplan MS, First MB. Sexual and other axis I diagnoses of 60 males arrested for crimes against children involving the Internet.
CNS Spectr. 2009 Nov;14(11):623-31. PMID: 20173687
Of 60 males referred for psychosexual evaluation after arrest for internet related child pornography and/or attempting to meet children, 40% had at least one paraphilia (inappropriate situational sexual arousal to objects or persons), 33% were characterized by hypersexuality, and 70% had an axis I disorder (clinical mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar).
Hald GM, Malamuth NM, Yuen C. Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: revisiting the relationship in nonexperimental
Aggress Behav. 2010 Jan-Feb;36(1):14-20. PMID: 19862768
In a meta-analysis (review of many related studies all together) of nonexperimental studies on use of pornography, there was a positive association between pornography use and attitudes supporting violence against women.
Krulewitch CJ. Epidemiology of intimate partner homicide-suicide events among women of childbearing age in Maryland, 1994-
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2009 Dec;30(4):362-5. PMID: 19901804
In a review of intimate partner homicide-suicide (IPH-IPS) in Maryland, 75 incidents were identified over a ten year period. 94.7% were female homicide followed by male suicide; 11% of the women were pregnant or within one year postpartum. Nationally, 1/3 of abuse victim homicides ends with abuser suicide. “There is a need for a national surveillance system that identifies IPH-IPS events and provides information on both victims that includes individual and relationship characteristics.”
Dempsey B, Day A. The Identification of Implicit Theories in Domestic Violence Perpetrators.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2010 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20305091
Consistent themes that emerged from in depth interviews with 7 Australian batterers were: violence is normal, trust no one, women are unknowable, I am always right, emotional volatility, drugs and alcohol, avoid intimacy, avoid abandonment, depression/hopelessness, create a better life, I’m a good person, the male is the provider and protector. Author argues that more information is needed from the batterer standpoint in order to improve interventions.
Police and Court System
Berkowitz CD. Child pornography: legal and medical considerations.
Adv Pediatr. 2009;56:203-18. PMID: 19968950.
Article reviews legal aspects of child pornography and the role of the pediatrician in legal assessment and patient evaluation and counseling.
Stover CS, Berkman M, Desai R, Marans S. The efficacy of a police-advocacy intervention for victims of domestic violence: 12 month follow-up data.
Violence Against Women. 2010 Apr;16(4):410-25. PMID: 20224112
In a one year follow-up of a controlled study of a Domestic Violence Home Visit Intervention program, in which an advocate/police officer team provided a home visit following a domestic dispute, women who received the visit were more satisfied with the police, were more likely to call police in the 12 months following, to use court-based services, and to seek mental health treatment for their children.
Thackeray JD, Scribano PV, Rhoda D. Domestic violence assessments in the child advocacy center.
Child Abuse Negl. 2010 Mar;34(3):172-82. PMID: 20207001
An online national survey of 376 child advocacy centers, with a 86% response rate, demonstrated that less than 1/3 of CACs practiced universal DV assessments, or required annual education for staff regarding DV.
Houry D, Cunningham RM, Hankin A, James T, Bernstein E, Hargarten S. Violence prevention in the emergency department: future research priorities.
Acad Emerg Med. 2009 Nov;16(11):1089-95. PMID: 20053227
A working group at an Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference developed recommendations and research questions for violence prevention in EDs, including promoting and facilitating the collection of standardized information relating to violence victimization and perpetration in ED settings.
Kulkarni S, Bell H, Wylie L. Why don't they follow through? Intimate partner survivors' challenges in accessing health and social services.
Fam Community Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;33(2):94-105. PMID: 20216352
Using two focus groups, DV hotline advocates and DV survivors, key service needs and access barriers were identified in the interaction with healthcare providers.
Douglas H, Walsh T. Mothers, Domestic Violence, and Child Protection.
Violence Against Women. 2010 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20348440
In interviews, DV advocates express their concerns about misunderstandings and inappropriate response by child protection workers.
Kimbrough E, Magyari T, Langenberg P, Chesney M, Berman B. Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors.
J Clin Psychol. 2010 Jan;66(1):17-33. PMID: 19998425
23 out of 27 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse participated for all 8 weeks of a mindfulness based stress reduction program (overall good retention, and positive response by participants). At follow up of up to 24 weeks, participants showed a significant decrease from baseline in depression and PTSD symptoms.
Other of Interest
Murray CE, Welch ML. Preliminary Construction of a Service Provider-Informed Domestic Violence Research Agenda.
J Interpers Violence. 2010 Feb 2. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20129913
This article presents the results of a statewide survey of DV service providers focusing on their needs and opinions related to research.
Baren J, Campbell CF, Schears RM, Shofer FS, Datner EM, Hollander JE. Observed behaviors of subjects during informed consent for an emergency department study.
Ann Emerg Med. 2010 Jan;55(1):9-14. Epub 2009 Nov 22. PMID: 19931940
Of 1609 patients approached for an IPV study in an emergency room setting, 82% participated. 53% read the informed consent, but only 13% spent more than two minutes doing so; only 20% asked questions, and only 49% took a copy of the informed consent with them. Article discusses the consent process as it applies to patient protection as well as being compatible with patient preferences.
Cerulli C, Cerulli J, Santos EJ, Lu N, He H, Kaukeinen K, White AM, Tu X. Does the health status of intimate partner violence victims warrant pharmacies as portals for public health
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2010 Mar-Apr1;50(2):200-6. PMID: 20199963.
Article discusses the concept that pharmacists be trained to recognize IPV and provide appropriate resource materials.
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